Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

VariableC-peptide <0.017 nmol/L (n = 99)C-peptide 0.017–0.2 nmol/L (n = 117)C-peptide ≥0.2 nmol/L (n = 103)Control subjects (n = 12)
Age at initial MMTT (years)***34.0 (17.0, 56.0)29.0 (17.0, 45.0)41.0 (28.0, 48.8)20.5 (18.0, 25.8)
Sex (% male)46.542.744.750
BMI (kg/m2)25.5 (22.0, 29.0)25.4 (22.1, 28.4)26.1 (22.7, 29.2)24.7 (23.1, 28.4)
Race/ethnicity (% non-Hispanic white)*93.987.286.766.7
T1D duration at consent (years)***16.0 (7.0, 33.0)6.0 (4.0, 11.5)7.0 (4.0, 13.0)n/a
Age at diagnosis (years)***15.0 (7.0, 25.0)19.0 (11.0, 45.0)29.0 (21.5, 38.0)n/a
HbA1c (%)*7.8 (5.3, 8.7)7.7 (6.8, 9.3)7.3 (6.6, 8.1)n/a
GAD positive*41.462.460n/a
IA2 positive**35.444.422.9n/a
ZnT8 positive***14.140.1725.7n/a
≥1 high risk HLA DRB1 alleles present83.276.275n/a
  • Data represent values obtained at initial visit and are median (interquartile range) or percent unless otherwise indicated. AUC, area under the curve; n/a, not applicable.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • **P < 0.01;

  • ***P < 0.001 for differences among groups using Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.