Table 1

Characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 10 years of survival, stratified by mean HbA1c during the 0-to-1-year early glycemic exposure period

HbA1c
Overall<6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)7% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)≥9.0% (75 mmol/mol)MissingP value
Patients, n (%)34,737 (100)14,286 (41.1)5,877 (16.9)4,730 (13.6)1,418 (4.1)1,290 (3.7)7,136 (20.5)
Follow-up time (year), mean (SD)13.0 (1.9)12.9 (1.9)12.6 (1.8)12.8 (1.8)13.1 (1.8)13.3 (1.9)13.3 (2.0)<0.0001
Age at diagnosis (year), mean (SD)56.8 (11.0)57.9 (10.9)57.9 (10.9)56.2 (11.0)53.4 (10.7)52.0 (10.0)55.7 (10.7)<0.0001
Female sex, n (%)16,216 (46.7)6,329 (44.3)3,015 (51.3)2,451 (51.8)706 (49.8)588 (45.6)3,127 (43.8)<0.0001
Race/ethnicity, n (%)<0.0001
 Non-Hispanic white17,625 (50.7)7,996 (56.0)2,859 (48.7)2,177 (46.0)591 (41.7)506 (39.2)3,496 (49.0)
 Non-Hispanic black3,253 (9.4)1,154 (8.1)555 (9.4)494 (10.4)166 (11.7)201 (15.6)683 (9.6)
 Hispanic4,531 (13.0)1,831 (12.8)703 (12.0)596 (12.6)197 (13.9)218 (16.9)986 (13.8)
 Asian6,351 (18.3)2,148 (15.0)1,231 (21.0)1,046 (22.1)328 (23.1)231 (17.9)1,367 (19.2)
 Mixed2,158 (6.2)857 (6.0)377 (6.4)311 (6.6)101 (7.1)91 (7.1)421 (5.9)
 Other/missing819 (2.4)300 (2.1)152 (2.6)106 (2.2)35 (2.5)43 (3.3)183 (2.6)
HbA1c (%), mean (SD)6.7 (1.2)6.0 (0.4)6.7 (0.1)7.4 (0.3)8.4 (0.3)10.5 (1.5)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)32.0 (6.4)31.7 (6.2)31.8 (6.4)32.1 (6.5)32.8 (6.6)32.8 (6.9)32.3 (6.5)<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), n (%)<0.0001
 ≤1207,613 (21.9)3,257 (22.8)1,339 (22.8)1,028 (21.7)293 (20.7)301 (23.3)1,395 (19.6)
 121–1295,119 (14.7)2,187 (15.3)899 (15.3)703 (14.9)204 (14.4)193 (15.0)933 (13.1)
 130–1398,847 (25.5)3,680 (25.8)1,536 (26.1)1,262 (26.7)370 (26.1)281 (21.8)1,718 (24.1)
 140–1599,492 (27.3)3,721 (26.1)1,554 (26.4)1,275 (27.0)387 (27.3)391 (30.3)2,164 (30.3)
 ≥1603,666 (10.6)1,441 (10.1)549 (9.3)462 (9.8)164 (11.6)124 (9.6)926 (13.0)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), n (%)<0.0001
 ≤8022,090 (63.6)9,468 (66.3)3,806 (64.8)3,015 (63.7)857 (60.4)759 (58.8)4,185 (58.7)
 81–844,357 (12.5)1,739 (12.2)747 (12.7)607 (12.8)182 (12.8)167 (13.0)915 (12.8)
 85–893,452 (9.9)1,329 (9.3)597 (10.2)464 (9.8)153 (10.8)132 (10.2)777 (10.9)
 90–993,787 (10.9)1,364 (9.6)576 (9.8)506 (10.7)178 (12.6)187 (14.5)976 (13.7)
 ≥1001,051 (3.0)386 (2.7)151 (2.6)138 (2.9)48 (3.4)45 (3.5)283 (4.0)
TC (mg/dL), mean (SD)205.7 (45.0)199.0 (39.5)204.8 (42.6)208.2 (42.2)212.7 (58.9)222.6 (62.5)213.8 (49.2)<0.0001
HDL-C (mg/dL), mean (SD)45.3 (11.4)45.4 (11.6)46.3 (11.5)45.2 (11.2)44.7 (11.1)44.0 (11.3)44.5 (11.3)<0.0001
Smoking status, n (%)<0.0001
 Never21,440 (61.7)8,844 (61.9)3,769 (64.1)2,938 (62.1)842 (59.4)753 (58.4)4,294 (60.2)
 Current2,071 (6.0)792 (5.5)345 (5.9)340 (7.2)100 (7.1)120 (9.3)374 (5.2)
 Unknown10,973 (31.6)4,535 (31.7)1,723 (29.3)1,415 (29.9)464 (32.7)409 (31.7)2,427 (34.0)
Charlson comorbidity index, mean (SD)1.6 (1.0)1.6 (1.1)1.6 (1.0)1.6 (1.0)1.6 (1.0)1.6 (0.9)1.5 (0.9)<0.0001
Oral diabetes medication, n (%)<0.0001
 Biguanide only5,383 (10)2,024 (11)947 (13)935 (15)257 (13)215 (11)1,005 (5)
 Sulfonylurea only17,218 (31)6,163 (32)1,898 (26)1,960 (32)779 (40)812 (42)5,606 (31)
 Biguanide and sulfonylurea only2,363 (4)628 (3)331 (4)471 (8)252 (13)303 (16)378 (2)
 None29,850 (54)10,340 (54)4,189 (57)2,717 (45)667 (34)584 (31)11,353 (62)
Insulin, n (%)1,344 (2)512 (3)109 (1)167 (3)68 (3)107 (6)381 (2)<0.0001
Statin, n (%)12,578 (23)5,257 (27)2,471 (34)1,727 (28)464 (24)314 (16)2,345 (13)<0.0001
Microvascular events, n (%)3,185 (9.2)1,070 (7.5)475 (8.1)459 (9.7)182 (12.8)263 (20.4)736 (10.3)<0.0001
Macrovascular events, n (%)10,864 (31.3)4,499 (31.5)1,822 (31.0)1,473 (31.1)450 (31.7)452 (35.0)2,168 (30.4)<0.0001
Death, n (%)1,807 (5.2)744 (5.2)268 (4.6)224 (4.7)68 (4.8)66 (5.1)437 (6.1)<0.0001
  • Percentages may not total 100% as a result of rounding. To convert TC and HDL-C to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.259. HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol.