Table 2

Associations among various early HbA1c exposure periods and subsequent outcomes

Microvascular events Macrovascular eventsDeath
Early period and mean glycemic controln/total nAdjusted HR (95% CI)P valuen/total nAdjusted HR (95% CI)P valuen/total nAdjusted HR (95% CI)P value
0–1 year
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)864/14,080Reference3,668/13,455Reference744/14,286Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)372/5,7741.204 (1.063–1.365)0.0041,497/5,5521.188 (1.116–1.264)<0.0001268/5,8771.137 (0.985–1.313)0.079
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)385/4,6561.391 (1.226–1.578)<0.00011,244/4,5011.287 (1.203–1.377)<0.0001224/4,7301.290 (1.104–1.507)0.001
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)154/1,3901.603 (1.340–1.917)<0.0001383/1,3511.369 (1.227–1.527)<0.000168/1,4181.262 (0.978–1.628)0.073
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)232/1,2592.213 (1.892–2.590)<0.0001382/1,2201.485 (1.329–1.659)<0.000166/1,2901.320 (1.017–1.713)0.037
   Missing647/7,0471.354 (1.218–1.505)<0.00011,899/6,8671.112 (1.050–1.177)0.0003437/7,1361.235 (1.094–1.394)0.001
0–2 years
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)809/14,673Reference3,612/13,860Reference817/14,940Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)451/7,5171.259 (1.117–1.419)0.00021,866/7,1431.158 (1.093–1.228)<0.0001368/7,6751.093 (0.962–1.241)0.172
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)544/7,1441.497 (1.331–1.684)<0.00011,788/6,8421.264 (1.189–1.344)<0.0001368/7,2951.240 (1.088–1.414)0.001
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)258/2,5291.700 (1.460–1.980)<0.0001620/2,4261.279 (1.168–1.401)<0.0001128/2,5921.274 (1.047–1.551)0.016
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)408/2,1592.756 (2.396–3.170)<0.0001624/2,1121.539 (1.400–1.692)<0.0001126/2,2351.528 (1.245–1.876)<0.0001
0–3 years
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)619/12,475Reference2,931/11,635Reference717/12,769Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)412/7,8831.194 (1.049–1.359)0.0071,818/7,3471.126 (1.059–1.197)0.0001375/8,0570.975 (0.856–1.109)0.696
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)551/8,3101.453 (1.281–1.648)<0.00011,931/7,8731.208 (1.134–1.286)<0.0001433/8,5411.189 (1.044–1.353)0.009
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)293/3,0811.835 (1.571–2.145)<0.0001732/2,9521.329 (1.216–1.453)<0.0001162/3,1881.376 (1.145–1.654)0.001
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)406/2,0843.193 (2.738–3.723)<0.0001563/2,0411.471 (1.327–1.631)<0.0001120/2,1821.503 (1.211–1.865)0.0002
0–4 years
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)493/10,627Reference2,322/9,692Reference621/10,898Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)401/8,0971.252 (1.091–1.436)0.0011,719/7,4101.100 (1.031–1.174)0.004399/8,3021.013 (0.889–1.155)0.842
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)542/9,3061.461 (1.277–1.673)<0.00012,019/8,7101.224 (1.145–1.308)<0.0001482/9,6081.224 (1.074–1.395)0.002
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)312/3,5671.894 (1.608–2.231)<0.0001770/3,3521.299 (1.185–1.425)<0.0001187/3,6971.453 (1.211–1.742)<0.0001
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)412/2,1153.687 (3.123–4.352)<0.0001534/2,0731.535 (1.374–1.714)<0.0001118/2,2321.676 (1.337–2.100)<0.0001
0–5 years
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)399/9,209Reference1,862/8,226Reference552/9,475Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)377/8,2441.263 (1.091–1.462)0.0021,596/7,3891.102 (1.027–1.182)0.007423/8,4651.070 (0.937–1.221)0.318
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)519/10,1181.441 (1.246–1.666)<0.00012,038/9,3151.259 (1.173–1.352)<0.0001518/10,5001.238 (1.083–1.415)0.002
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)331/3,8412.111 (1.779–2.506)<0.0001727/3,5561.269 (1.150–1.400)<0.0001200/3,9841.554 (1.294–1.867)<0.0001
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)418/2,1844.094 (3.427–4.893)<0.0001524/2,1341.596 (1.420–1.794)<0.0001114/2,3131.747 (1.382–2.208)<0.0001
0–6 years
 HbA1c
   <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)343/8,192Reference1,524/7,122Reference505/8,463Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)319/8,3281.137 (0.970–1.333)0.1121,433/7,3621.074 (0.996–1.159)0.064432/8,5801.097 (0.959–1.255)0.177
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)523/10,6961.543 (1.324–1.797)<0.00011,967/9,6711.299 (1.204–1.402)<0.0001547/11,1201.278 (1.116–1.464)0.0004
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)322/4,0342.252 (1.879–2.700)<0.0001713/3,6831.368 (1.233–1.517)<0.0001207/4,1991.561 (1.296–1.880)<0.0001
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)424/2,2334.869 (4.030–5.882)<0.0001486/2,1581.734 (1.530–1.964)<0.0001116/2,3751.932 (1.523–2.451)<0.0001
0–7 years
 HbA1c
  <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol)272/7,372Reference1,222/6,245Reference476/7,660Reference
   6.5% to <7.0% (48 to <53 mmol/mol)295/8,3711.194 (1.006–1.418)0.0431,320/7,2261.135 (1.046–1.232)0.002441/8,6541.076 (0.938–1.233)0.295
   7.0% to <8.0% (53 to <64 mmol/mol)481/11,1781.606 (1.359–1.899)<0.00011,783/9,9591.327 (1.221–1.442)<0.0001562/11,6721.269 (1.106–1.457)0.001
   8.0% to <9.0% (64 to <75 mmol/mol)310/4,2022.580 (2.123–3.135)<0.0001689/3,7971.577 (1.412–1.760)<0.0001213/4,3891.661 (1.378–2.003)<0.0001
   ≥9.0% (≥75 mmol/mol)414/2,2016.437 (5.246–7.899)<0.0001447/2,1072.113 (1.847–2.417)<0.0001115/2,3622.181 (1.713–2.778)<0.0001
  • All models adjusted for year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, smoking status, HbA1c after each early period, and comorbidity.