Table 3

Differences in cognitive scores between none/mild and moderate/severe DKA groups based on longitudinal mixed-effects modeling

Group effect at TbGroup effect at T18Group effect at T18 vs. Tb (slope difference)
BatterySubscaleEstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*
IQWPPSI3/WASIFull Scale IQ Child Standard Score−3.9900.136−0.325−5.8160.030−0.473−1.8260.342−0.149
Verbal IQ Child Standard Score−5.5450.050−0.425−3.8370.182−0.2941.7090.4780.131
Performance IQ Child Standard Score−2.1410.485−0.150−5.6220.071−0.395−3.4810.155−0.245
Vocabulary Child Scaled Score−1.3840.014−0.542−0.6130.279−0.2400.7710.1500.302
Block Design Child Scaled Score−0.6070.368−0.188−1.0050.136−0.311−0.3980.496−0.123
Similarities Child Scaled Score−0.5460.308−0.225−0.8490.113−0.349−0.3030.579−0.125
Matrix Reasoning Child Scaled Score0.1780.7580.064−0.9320.107−0.335−1.1100.050−0.399
Executive functionsCPT2Detectability T-Score0.5050.7900.0533.9010.0380.4123.3950.1220.359
Commissions T-Score1.4470.4320.1564.8610.0080.5243.4150.0880.368
NEPSYIIAuditory Attention Total Corrected Scaled Score0.0750.9090.026−0.5300.372−0.181−0.6050.432−0.207
WJIII CognitiveConcept Formation Standard Score−3.0630.261−0.245−3.3260.221−0.266−0.2630.921−0.021
CMSNumbers Total Scaled Score−0.4250.494−0.1620.1520.7820.0580.5770.3400.221
Processing speedWJIII CognitiveDecision Speed Standard Score1.1000.7140.072−1.7440.559−0.115−2.8440.355−0.187
Visual Match II Standard Score−4.1810.176−0.282−2.0520.479−0.1382.1300.4350.143
Processing Speed Standard Score−2.8140.356−0.187−1.8030.553−0.1201.0110.6840.067
Learning and memoryCMSWord List Total Learning Raw Score−0.8900.501−0.118−0.4550.729−0.0610.4350.7620.058
Word List Immediate Recall Raw Score−0.1640.724−0.0660.0730.8750.0300.2370.6650.096
Word List Delayed Raw Score−0.6120.197−0.249−0.0670.887−0.0270.5450.2940.222
Word List Delayed Recognition Raw Score−2.0390.002−0.593−0.5590.391−0.1631.4800.1010.431
Dots Location Learning Raw Score−0.4790.406−0.139−0.3480.548−0.1010.1310.8610.038
Dots Location Total Score Raw Score−0.4690.543−0.103−1.1720.136−0.257−0.7030.472−0.154
Dots Location Immediate Raw Score0.0050.9860.003−0.6020.033−0.373−0.6070.087−0.376
Dots Location Delayed Raw Score0.2260.4320.139−0.6590.023−0.405−0.8860.021−0.545
  • Bold values are statistically significant. CMS, Children’s Memory Scale; NEPSY, Neuropsychological Assessment; WASI, Wechsler Adult

  • Scale of Intelligence; WJIII, Woodcock-Johnson III; WPPSI3, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition.

  • *Cohen d is calculated based on observed SD at T18 pooled across the two groups.