Table 2

Hazard ratios for development of retinopathy and microalbuminuria outcomes according to glycemic metrics

Retinopathy outcomeMicroalbuminuria outcome
HR per change ofUnadjusted HR (95% CI)*Adjusted HR (95% CI)Unadjusted HR (95% CI)*Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Overall
 TIR10%1.58 (1.46–1.71)1.64 (1.51–1.78)1.37 (1.23–1.53)1.40 (1.25–1.56)
 Mean glucose15 mg/dL1.20 (1.17–1.23)1.22 (1.19–1.26)1.15 (1.10–1.20)1.16 (1.11–1.21)
 Time >180 mg/dL10%1.48 (1.39–1.57)1.52 (1.43–1.62)1.31 (1.20–1.43)1.33 (1.21–1.45)
 Time >250 mg/dL10%1.43 (1.36–1.51)1.48 (1.40–1.57)1.30 (1.21–1.41)1.33 (1.22–1.44)
 AUC 180 mg/dL201.34 (1.28–1.40)1.39 (1.32–1.45)1.27 (1.18–1.36)1.29 (1.20–1.39)
 HBGI51.36 (1.30–1.42)1.40 (1.34–1.47)1.27 (1.19–1.37)1.30 (1.21–1.40)
 A1C0.5%1.32 (1.27–1.37)1.37 (1.31–1.42)1.22 (1.15–1.28)1.24 (1.17–1.31)
Primary cohort
 TIR10%1.71 (1.50–1.94)1.73 (1.52–1.97)1.61 (1.31–1.97)1.61 (1.31–1.98)
 Mean glucose15 mg/dL1.24 (1.18–1.30)1.24 (1.19–1.30)1.22 (1.14–1.31)1.22 (1.14–1.31)
 Time >180 mg/dL10%1.56 (1.41–1.73)1.58 (1.42–1.75)1.46 (1.24–1.72)1.46 (1.24–1.72)
 Time >250 mg/dL10%1.50 (1.38–1.64)1.53 (1.40–1.67)1.43 (1.24–1.64)1.43 (1.24–1.65)
 AUC 180 mg/dL201.43 (1.32–1.54)1.43 (1.33–1.55)1.40 (1.25–1.57)1.40 (1.25–1.56)
 HBGI51.44 (1.33–1.55)1.45 (1.34–1.57)1.41 (1.26–1.59)1.41 (1.25–1.58)
 A1C0.5%1.38 (1.30–1.46)1.41 (1.32–1.50)1.25 (1.13–1.37)1.25 (1.14–1.37)
Secondary cohort
 TIR10%1.53 (1.39–1.69)1.59 (1.43–1.76)1.32 (1.15–1.51)1.31 (1.14–1.49)
 Mean glucose15 mg/dL1.18 (1.15–1.23)1.21 (1.16–1.25)1.13 (1.08–1.20)1.13 (1.07–1.19)
 Time >180 mg/dL10%1.45 (1.34–1.56)1.49 (1.37–1.62)1.28 (1.15–1.42)1.27 (1.14–1.41)
 Time >250 mg/dL10%1.41 (1.32–1.51)1.46 (1.35–1.57)1.29 (1.16–1.42)1.28 (1.15–1.41)
 AUC 180 mg/dL201.31 (1.24–1.39)1.36 (1.28–1.44)1.23 (1.12–1.35)1.23 (1.11–1.35)
 HBGI51.33 (1.26–1.41)1.37 (1.29–1.46)1.24 (1.13–1.36)1.23 (1.12–1.36)
 A1C0.5%1.30 (1.24–1.37)1.34 (1.27–1.41)1.24 (1.15–1.33)1.23 (1.14–1.32)
  • AUC, area under the curve; HBGI, high blood glucose index; HR, hazard ratio.

  • *From discrete Cox proportional hazards regression models using a time-dependent version of each glucose metric. P value <0.001 for each model.

  • †From discrete Cox proportional hazards regression models using a time-dependent version of each glucose metric stratified by the ETDRS level of retinopathy at baseline and adjusted for the pre-DCCT glycemic exposure represented by the preexisting duration of diabetes separately for the primary and secondary cohorts. P value <0.001 for each model. An additional model which included age and sex as covariates produced similar results.