Table 1

Characteristics of study subjects

UnmatchedMatched for HbA1c and age
None/mildModerate/severeNone/mildModerate/severe
n = 98n = 30P valuesn = 30n = 30P values
Demographics
 Sex0.07
  Male55111811
  Female43191219
 Age at baseline (years)7.18 (1.7)6.35 (1.4)0.026.38 (1.5)6.35 (1.4)0.94
 Onset age (years)4.37 (1.8)3.36 (2.0)0.013.74 (1.5)3.36 (2.0)0.41
 Diabetes duration at Tb 2.73 (1.9)2.94 (1.9)0.452.56 (1.9)2.94 (1.9)0.45
Glycemic characteristics
 Avg HbA1c (%) over 18 months7.8 (0.8) 8.2 (0.9)0.027.9 (0.8) 8.2 (0.9) 0.19
 Avg HbA1c (mmol/mol) over 18 months62 (9)66 (10)63 (9)66 (10)
 Avg AOC 70 mg/dL (%)0.7 (0.5)0.8 (0.6)0.480.7 (0.6)0.8 (0.7)0.67
 Avg AOC >300 mg/dL (%)12.8 (7.4)17.3(8.7)0.0112.6 (6.9)17.3 (8.7)0.02
 MAGE (mg/dL)157 (24)175 (26)0.11161 (27)175 (26)0.52
Brain volume
 GMV_Tb (mL)694 (54)672 (48)0.55*688 (51)672 (48)0.52*
 WMV_Tb (mL)449 (41)433 (32)0.97*438 (41)433 (32)0.73*
 GMV_T18 (mL)703 (54)685 (49)0.76*698 (48)685 (49)0.70*
 WMV_T18 (mL)459 (42)448 (34)0.66*449 (41)448 (34)0.49*
Brain growth during study
 GMV growth rate (mL/year)5.7 (5)8.5 (5)0.14*6.4 (5)8.5 (5)0.04*
 WMV growth rate (mL/year)7.2 (4)9.5 (4)0.04*7.2 (4)9.5 (4)0.04*
  • Data are presented as n or mean (SD). For the unmatched groups, the moderate/severe group was significantly younger in age, younger at onset age, and had higher glycemic exposure during the study. The matched subgroups reduced those differences. For the CGM data, Avg AOC (area over the blood concentration–time curve) 70 mg/dL is the average amount of time spent under 70 mg/dL, Avg >300 mg/dL is the average time spent over 300 mg/dL. For the brain volume data, growth rate is calculated as the difference in T18Tb divided by time interval in years.

  • *Covaried for age and sex.