Table 2

Comparison of glucose control and insulin delivery over 21 days during closed-loop with diluted insulin (U20) and closed-loop with standard strength insulin (U100)

DilutedStandard strength
(n = 23)(n = 24)P
Percent of time with sensor glucose level in range
 3.9–10.0 mmol/L*72 ± 870 ± 70.16
 <3.9 mmol/L4.5 ± 1.74.7 ± 1.40.47
 <3.5 mmol/L2.4 ± 1.22.5 ± 1.00.32
 <2.8 mmol/L0.6 ± 0.50.6 ± 0.4>0.99
 >10.0 mmol/L23 ± 925 ± 70.23
 >16.7 mmol/L1.2 (0.6–3.2)1.5 (0.8–3.1)0.28
Glucose AUC <3.5 mmol/L2.9 ± 1.93.0 ± 1.60.71
Glucose (mmol/L)8.0 ± 0.88.2 ± 0.60.14
Glucose SD (mmol/L)3.1 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.40.16
Glucose CV (%)40 (39–41)39 (38–42)0.91
Total daily insulin (units/day)17.3 ± 5.618.9 ± 6.90.07
Total daily basal insulin (units/day)6.8 ± 2.57.2 ± 3.20.76
Total daily bolus insulin (units/day)10.4 ± 3.511.8 ± 4.20.006
Basal-to-bolus ratio0.67 ± 0.190.63 ± 0.200.10
  • Data are mean ± SD or median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated. CV, coefficient of variation.

  • *Primary end point.

  • †The area under the curve (AUC) is for a glucose level <3.5 mmol/L/24-h period.