Table 1

Long-term mean wHbA1c during whole follow-up of 18–24 years in an unselected population with type 1 diabetes with onset before, during, or after puberty

Subgroup evaluated for incidence of simplex retinopathyAll patients evaluated for incidence of proliferative retinopathy
AllFemaleMaleP*AllFemaleMaleP
Diabetes onset
 Before puberty68 (12) [8.4 (1.1)], 10471 (10) [8.6 (0.9)], 4067 (13) [8.3 (1.2)], 640.0468 (12) [8.4 (1.1)], 16071 (10) [8.6 (0.9)], 6866 (13) [8.2 (1.2)], 920.02
 During puberty69 (16) [8.5 (1.5)], 5176 (15) [9.1 (1.4)], 2264 (15) [8.0 (1.4)], 290.0168 (13) [8.4 (1.2)], 88§72 (15) [8.7 (1.4)], 3765 (10) [8.1 (0.9)], 510.01
 After puberty64 (15) [8.0 (1.4)], 12668 (18) [8.4 (1.7)], 5362 (12) [7.8 (1.1)], 730.0664 (13) [8.0 (1.2)], 18363 (14) [7.9 (1.3)], 8164 (12) [8.0 (1.2)], 1020.47
Age at onset (years)
 0–4.967 (10) [8.3 (0.9)], 3268 (8) [8.4 (0.7)], 1465 (12) [8.1 (1.1)], 180.3867 (10) [8.3 (0.9)], 5168 (8) [8.4 (0.7)], 2567 (12) [8.3 (1.1)], 260.61
 5–9.969 (13) [8.5 (1.2)], 6473 (11) [8.8 (1.0)], 2667 (14) [8.3 (1.3)], 380.0769 (12) [8.5 (1.1)], 9472 (10) [8.7 (0.9)], 4366 (13) [8.2 (1.2)], 510.02
 10–14.971 (16) [8.6 (1.5)], 5076 (15) [9.1 (1.4)], 2267 (15) [8.3 (1.4)], 280.0568 (14) [8.4 (1.3)], 9071 (16) [8.6 (1.5)], 3965 (11) [8.1 (1.0)], 510.04
 15–19.964 (16) [8.0 (1.5)], 3263 (19) [7.9 (1.7)], 1365 (15) [8.1 (1.4)], 190.7563 (13) [7.9 (1.2)], 5660 (11) [7.6 (1.0)], 2466 (13) [8.2 (1.2)], 320.05
 20–24.960 (15) [7.6 (1.4)], 3459 (19) [7.5 (1.7)], 1261 (11) [7.7 (1.0)], 220.6463 (12) [7.9 (1.1)], 4761 (15) [7.7 (1.4)], 1864 (9) [8.0 (0.8)], 290.52
 25–29.967 (17) [8.3 (1.6)], 3774 (18) [8.9 (1.7)], 1860 (12) [7.6 (1.1)], 190.0163 (13) [7.9 (1.1)], 5165 (15) [8.1 (1.4)], 2462 (11) [7.8 (1.0)], 260.45
 30–3465 (10) [8.1 (0.9)], 3273 (10) [8.8 (0.9)], 1062 (9) [7.8 (0.8)], 22<0.0166 (12) [8.2 (1.1)], 4369 (11) [8.5 (1.0)], 1365 (12) [8.1 (1.1)], 300.310
Total67 (14) [8.3 (1.3)], 28170 (15) [8.6 (1.4)], 11564 (13) [8.0 (1.2)], 166<0.00166 (12) [8.2 (1.1)], 43168 (13) [8.4 (1.2)], 18665 (12) [8.1 (1.1)], 2450.04
  • Puberty defined as age 10.0–14.9 years for girls and 12.0–16.9 years for boys. Mean (SD) wHbA1c data are expressed as mmol/mol [%], number of individuals.

  • *P value for the difference between female and male, t test;

  • P = 0.002 compared with after puberty;

  • P = 0.001 compared with after puberty;

  • §P = 0.021 compared with after puberty;

  • P < 0.02 compared with age 15–19.9 years;

  • P < 0.05 compared with age 20–24.9 years. ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test.