Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Cohort without diabetesCohort with diabetes
n1,167,585297,486
Age (years)58.5 ± 13.266.4 ± 11.9
Sex
 Male529,290 (45.3)142,899 (48.0)
 Female638,295 (54.7)154,587 (52.0)
Ethnicity
 Jewish1,001,860 (85.8)243,386 (81.8)
 Arab165,725 (14.2)54,100 (18.2)
District
 A107,553 (9.2)27,530 (9.3)
 B116,468 (10.0)31,373 (10.5)
 C128,347 (11.0)32,241 (11.2)
 D132,152 (11.3)33,167 (11.1)
 E215,838 (18.5)54,200 (18.2)
 F132,548 (11.4)3,511 (10.9)
 G161,533 (13.8)40,027 (13.5)
 H173,146 (14.8)45,437 (15.3)
SES
 Low418,133 (36.0)124,733 (42.1)
 Middle478,101 (41.2)118,313 (39.9)
 High265,563 (22.9)53,353 (18.0)
Comorbidities and risk factors (%)
 Smoking420,800 (36.0)113,445 (38.1)
 Alcohol consumption9,155 (0.8)2,453 (0.8)
 Obesity179,141 (15.3)121,404 (40.8)
 Previous ICH1,418 (0.12)886 (0.3)
 Previous stroke/TIA54,122 (4.6)38,850 (13.1)
 Hypertension363,171 (31.1)208,451 (70.1)
 Atrial fibrillation39,763 (3.4)23,156 (7.8)
 Congestive heart failure22,186 (1.9)23,724 (8.0)
 Vascular disease89,176 (7.6)61,295 (20.6)
 Chronic kidney disease40,088 (3.4)57,834 (19.4)
 Chronic obstructive lung disease46,874 (4.0)24,225 (8.1)
 Chronic liver disease6,965 (0.6)5,276 (1.8)
Medication use (%)
 Antiaggregants206,869 (17.7)163,008 (54.8)
 Anticoagulants23,001 (2.0)14,021 (4.7)
 ACE inhibitors and ARBs215,728 (18.5)184,155 (61.9)
 β-Blockers182,221 (15.6)114,021 (38.3)
 Calcium channel blockers129,544 (11.1)87,504 (29.4)
 Digoxin3,757 (0.3)3,404 (1.1)
 Diuretics109,518 (9.4)74,283 (25.0)
 Antiarrhythmics14,119 (1.2)7.033 (2.4)
 Statins333,787 (28.6)206,126 (69.3)
Cholesterol level
 Total cholesterol192 ± 37174 ± 39
 LDL cholesterol115 ± 3196 ± 31
 HDL cholesterol51 ± 1346 ± 12
Number of medical services used in previous year
 Primary physician visits12.2 ± 10.720.5 ± 12.7
 Cardiologist visits0.18 ± 0.770.39 ± 1.11
 Inpatient visits0.22 ± 0.930.55 ± 1.75
 Emergency visits0.20 ± 0.630.29 ± 0.740
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.