Table 1

Cohort characteristics at the time of second-line ADD initiation

All N = 276,884No history of CVD N = 276,884History of CVD N = 60,317
Age, years*59 (12)57 (12)64 (9)
Male136,918 (49)99,907 (46)37,011 (61)
White194,758 (70)149,180 (69)45,578 (76)
Black32,671 (12)27,274 (13)5,397 (9)
Time from metformin initiation, months*7.5 (15.7)7.1 (15.2)9.0 (17.4)
Follow-up, years*3.7 (2.4)3.7 (2.5)3.6 (2.4)
Follow-up ≥12 months247,223 (89)193,092 (89)54,131 (90)
Follow-up ≥24 months191,883 (69)149,833 (69)42,050 (70)
Therapy duration, months*33 (25)33 (25)33 (24)
HbA1c, %*8.4 (1.9)8.5 (1.9)8.1 (1.7)
HbA1c, mmol/mol686965
HbA1c ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol)102,624 (60)84,835 (61)17,789 (54)
Weight, kg*99 (25)100 (25)97 (23)
BMI, kg/m2*35 (8)35 (8)33 (7)
BMI <25 kg/m218,819 (7)13,735 (7)5,084 (9)
BMI ≥25 and <30 kg/m260,575 (23)44,963 (22)15,612 (27)
BMI ≥30 kg/m2187,936 (70)150,067 (72)37,869 (65)
SBP, mmHg*131 (15)131 (15)130 (16)
Uncontrolled SBP§82,837 (30)53,168 (25)29,669 (50)
DBP, mmHg*77 (9)78 (9)75 (9)
LDL, mg/dL*97 (35)100 (35)87 (34)
Uncontrolled LDL71,424 (50)51,077 (46)20,347 (67)
HDL, mg/dL*43 (12)44 (12)42 (12)
Triglycerides, mg/dL147 (107, 197)148 (107, 198)146 (107, 195)
Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL54,640 (48)43,240 (49)11,400 (48)
Chronic kidney disease9,602 (3)5,793 (3)3,809 (6)
Cancer13,750 (5)9,951 (5)3,799 (6)
Depression38,444 (14)29,996 (14)8,448 (14)
Charlson Comorbidity Index*1.6 (1.1)1.4 (0.9)2.4 (1.4)
Any lipid-modifying drug188,272 (68)137,391 (63)50,881 (84)
Statin168,485 (61)121,287 (56)47,198 (78)
Blood pressure–lowering drug224,086 (81)167,177 (77)56,909 (94)
  • *Mean (SD).

  • n (%).

  • ‡Median (first quartile, third quartile).

  • §Uncontrolled SBP: ≥130/140 mmHg for those with/without history of CVD at the time of second-line ADD initiation.

  • ‖Uncontrolled LDL: ≥70/100 mg/dL for those with/without history of CVD at the time of second-line ADD initiation.