Table 1

Baseline main clinical, metabolic, and pulmonary characteristics of participants in the study according to their response to the intensification of antidiabetic treatment

All patients (n = 60)Good responders (n = 35)Nonresponders (n = 25)P
Clinical data
 Men47 (78.3)28 (80.0)19 (76.0)0.711
 Age (years)58.1 ± 6.458.3 ± 6.857.9 ± 6.00.806
 BMI (kg/m2)32.4 ± 6.132.3 ± 6.432.5 ± 5.80.891
 Decrease in BMI (kg/m2)−0.18 ± 1.2−0.2 ± 1.00.1 ± 0.70.123
 Decrease in kg−0.5 ± 3.7−1.2 ± 4.5−0.4 ± 2.00.056
 Waist circumference (cm)112.0 ± 14.2112.1 ± 14.6111.9 ± 13.90.953
 Never smokers43 (71.6)26 (74.2)17 (68.0)0.594
 Known type 2 diabetes duration (years)14.4 ± 8.513.4 ± 8.215.8 ± 8.90.290
 Diabetic retinopathy23 (38.3)13 (37.1)10 (40.0)0.960
 Diabetic nephropathy24 (40.0)17 (48.5)7 (28.0)0.181
 Ischemic heart disease9 (15.0)7 (20.0)2 (8.0)0.281
Metabolic data
 Baseline HbA1c (%)8.8 ± 1.29.1 ± 1.28.4 ± 1.10.025
 Baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol)67.9 ± 13.771.1 ± 14.063.4 ± 12.40.025
 Decrease in HbA1c (%)−1.0 ± 1.4−2.0 ± 1.00.2 ± 0.7<0.001
 Decrease in HbA1c (mmol/mol)−12.0 ± 17.0−22.7 ± 12.23.0 ± 9.7<0.001
 FPG (mmol/L)11.1 ± 3.912.4 ± 3.69.4 ± 3.60.003
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)158.5 (36.0–683.0)154.0 (36.0–683.0)170.0 (72.0–331.0)0.495
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)95.7 ± 36.099.4 ± 32.990.4 ± 39.40.338
 GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)79.9 ± 16.378.9 ± 16.581.3 ± 16.30.582
Pulmonary function data
 FVC (% of predicted)77.8 ± 11.378.5 ± 12.676.9 ± 9.30.577
 FEV1 (% of predicted)76.5 ± 13.875.6 ± 15.377.6 ± 11.60.583
 PEF (% of predicted)80.1 ± 21.980.4 ± 21.680.5 ± 22.50.988
 FEF25–75 (% of predicted)65.8 ± 25.262.0 ± 27.271.3 ± 21.30.165
 FEV1/FVC ratio85.3 ± 14.088.3 ± 16.681.2 ± 8.00.053
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (range), or n (%). GFR, glomerular filtration rate using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration) equation.