Table 2

Long-term wHbA1c calculated for different time periods, i.e., ≤5 years after onset, >5 years after onset, and also before, during, and after puberty

Subgroup evaluated for incidence of simplex retinopathyAll patients evaluated for incidence of proliferative retinopathy
AllFemaleMaleP*AllFemaleMaleP*
wHbA1c after ≤5 years’ duration61 (15) [7.7 (1.4)], 26564 (17) [8.0 (1.6)], 10759 (14) [7.5 (1.3)], (158)0.0561 (16) [7.7 (1.5)], 42763 (16) [7.9 (1.5)], 18560 (15) [7.6 (1.4)], 2420.08
wHbA1c after >5 years’ duration71 (16) [8.6 (1.5)]75 (17) [9.0 (1.6)]68 (14) [8.4 (1.3)]0.0168 (13) [8.4 (1.2)]70 (14) [8.6 (1.3)]67 (12) [8.3 (1.1)]0.04
P<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
wHbA1c before puberty60 (14) [7.6 (1.3)], 8760 (13) [7.6 (1.2)], 3461 (14) [7.7 (1.3)], 530.8860 (13) [7.6 (1.2)], 143§60 (11) [7.6 (1.0)], 56§60 (14) [7.6 (1.3)], 87§0.93
wHbA1c during puberty70 (14) [8.6 (1.3)]70 (11) [8.6 (1.0)]69 (16) [8.5 (1.5)]0.8671 (14) [8.6 (1.3)]72 (12) [8.7 (1.1)]70 (15) [8.6 (1.4)]0.50
wHbA1c after puberty73 (16) [8.8 (1.5)]79 (16) [9.4 (1.5)]70 (15) [8.6 (1.4)]0.0171 (14) [8.6 (1.3)]74 (11) [89 (1.0)]68 (14) [8.4 (1.3)]<0.01
P#<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • Mean (SD) wHbA1c data expressed as mmol/mol [%], number of individuals.

  • *P value for the difference between female and male, t test;

  • P value for the difference between wHbA1c ≤5 years’ duration and >5 years’ duration, paired t test;

  • P < 0.001 compared with during and after puberty, GLM;

  • §P < 0.001 compared with during and after puberty, GLM;

  • P = 0.033 compared with after puberty;

  • P = 0.01 compared with after puberty, GLM;

  • #P value for the difference between wHbA1c before, during, and after puberty, GLM.