Table 1

Demographic characteristics and impact on eye examination utilization for adults with diabetes in the U.S. (2014–2015)

VariablesTotalModel 1 Having at least one exam in that respective yearModel 2 Having at least one exam within the 2 years
2014–2015 OR (95% CI)
201420152014 OR (95% CI)2015 OR (95% CI)
Unweighted, n1,228
Weighted, N (%)25,071,197 (100)
Age, mean (SD), years
 >45 (ref: 18–45 years)59.42 (13.95)59.83 (14.89)1.462* (1.016, 2.103)1.884*** (1.337, 2.655)1.737*** (1.366, 2.208)
Race, N (%)
 Minority (ref)801 (65.22)
 Non-Hispanic white427 (34.78)1.257* (1.018, 1.627)1.073 (0.832, 1.386)1.236* (1.018, 1.500)
Sex (%)
 Female (ref)57.41
 Male42.590.851 (0.664, 1.090)0.925 (0.727, 1.177)0.756** (0.632, 0.904)
Education (%)
 No degree|| (ref)§1.06
 Less than high school (ref)§27.44
 GED/high school56.841.759*** (1.268, 2.441)1.255 (0.902, 1.746)1.418** (1.095, 1.837)
 Bachelor’s degree9.37
 Professional degree5.29
Marital status (%)
 Not married (ref)49.3549.27
 Married50.6550.731.112 (0.864, 1.431)1.206 (0.944, 1.541)1.216* (1.013, 1.459)
Insured (%)90.3992.51
Insurance type (%)
 Uninsured (ref)9.617.49
 Private47.4848.373.050*** (1.824, 5.102)2.159*** (1.340, 3.478)2.209*** (1.616, 3.020)
 Medicare12.3812.623.766*** (2.100, 6.753)3.013*** (1.727, 5.257)2.526*** (1.719, 3.711)
 Medicaid21.1720.62.962*** (1.703, 5.153)1.657* (1.005, 2.761)1.689** (1.206, 2.365)
 Dual-eligible#9.3610.912.564** (1.367, 4.812)2.060* (1.172, 3.620)1.497* (1.017, 2.205)
Economic status (%)
 Below poverty line (ref)21.5821.25
 Above poverty line78.4278.751.282 (0.928, 1.771)0.95 (0.696, 1.296)1.088 (0.870, 1.362)
Region (%)
 Northeast (ref)15.0715.07
 Midwest17.6717.431.03 (0.681, 1.559)0.883 (0.586, 1.331)0.813 (0.598, 1.104)
 South43.8144.141.056 (0.741, 1.504)0.894 (0.631, 1.267)0.913 (0.703, 1.186)
 West23.4523.370.805 (0.544, 1.192)0.822 (0.561, 1.204)0.803 (0.604, 1.067)
  • Row percentages used. Column percentages used elsewhere.

  • Age was dichotomized into two groups for multivariate analysis: 1) reference group 18–45 years and 2) comparison group >45 years.

  • § Education was dichotomized into two groups for multivariate analysis: 1) reference group below GED/high school and 2) comparison group at or above GED/high school.

  • || No specific level of education was recorded on the survey.

  • High school diploma with or without ≥1 year of college.

  • # Those >65 years old with Medicaid and Medicare. Ref, reference category for multivariate analysis. Significance levels indicated at the following levels: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.