Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics for type 2 diabetes–exposed and –unexposed patients

ExposedUnexposed
(n = 360,250)(n = 1,296,489)
Age (years), mean (SD)64.85 (13.28)64.56 (13.63)
Age categories (years), n (%)
 16–292,117 (0.59)8,373 (0.65)
 30–3911,095 (3.08)43,951 (3.39)
 40–4938,704 (10.74)149,940 (11.57)
 50–5974,341 (20.64)271,837 (20.97)
 60–6999,805 (27.70)346,252 (26.71)
 ≥70134,188 (37.25)476,136 (36.73)
Sex, n (%)
 Men199,941 (55.50)702,927 (54.22)
 Women160,309 (44.50)593,562 (45.78)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)31.00 (6.47)29.83 (5.80)
BMI categories, n (%)
 Underweight/normal weight (<25 kg/m2)54,047 (15.00)234,404 (18.08)
 Overweight (25–30 kg/m2)118,393 (32.86)489,719 (37.77)
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2)179,959 (49.95)542,588 (41.85)
 Missing7,851 (2.18)29,778 (2.30)
Townsend deprivation quintile, n (%)
 164,764 (17.98)299,727 (23.12)
 264,862 (18.00)270,123 (20.83)
 368,180 (18.93)241,708 (18.64)
 465,566 (18.20)197,086 (15.20)
 549,372 (13.70)128,651 (9.92)
 Missing47,506 (13.19)159,194 (12.28)
Smoker categories, n (%)
 Nonsmoker174,233 (48.36)690,164 (53.23)
 Previous smoker129,534 (35.96)405,090 (31.25)
 Smoker55,482 (15.40)188,833 (14.56)
 Missing1,001 (0.28)12,402 (0.96)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Caucasian151,519 (42.06)533,954 (41.18)
 Black Afro-Caribbean5,858 (1.63)10,272 (0.79)
 Chinese2,432 (0.68)3,990 (0.31)
 South Asian13,663 (3.79)11,351 (0.88)
 Mixed race1,199 (0.33)2,432 (0.19)
 Missing185,579 (51.51)734,490 (56.65)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2), median (IQR)76.5 (60.6–91.3)74.3 (61.2–87.2)
eGFR category, n (%)
 ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 1)97,438 (27.05)208,516 (16.08)
 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 2)178,998 (49.69)599,575 (46.25)
 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 3)74,006 (20.54)207,151 (15.98)
 <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 4+5)7,384 (2.05)13,083 (1.01)
 Missing2,424 (0.67)268,164 (20.68)
Baseline comorbidities, n (%)
 CVDs
  Heart failure17,304 (4.80)32,924 (2.54)
  Ischemic heart disease68,908 (19.13)147,418 (11.37)
  Stroke/TIA31,687 (8.80)76,128 (5.87)
  Atrial fibrillation25,174 (6.99)65,688 (5.07)
  Hypertension213,479 (59.26)489,418 (37.75)
 Mental health conditions
  Anxiety57,756 (16.03)200,706 (15.48)
  Depression75,642 (21.00)241,215 (18.61)
Baseline drug use (within 60 days of index), n (%)
 Lipid-lowering drugs229,287 (63.65)305,443 (23.56)
Outcome at baseline, n (%)
 OSA*6,567 (1.82)11,682 (0.90)
Diabetes-related variables
 HbA1c (mmol/mol), median (IQR)51.9 (45.0–60.6)
 HbA1c category, n (%)
  ≤6.5% (47.500 mmol/mol)98,835 (27.44)
  6.5–7.5% (47.501–58.500 mmol/mol)114,821 (31.87)
  7.5–8.5% (58.501–69.400 mmol/mol)41,049 (11.39)
  ≥8.5% (69.401 mmol/mol)43,093 (11.96)
  Missing62,452 (17.34)
 Concurrent diabetes-related conditions, n (%)
  Foot disease22,305 (6.20)
  Retinopathy/low vision/blindness16,911 (4.69)
  Hypoglycemic event7,555 (2.10)
 Baseline drug use (within 60 days of index), n (%)
  Insulin26,877 (7.46)
  • *These patients were excluded from subsequent analysis.

  • †Diabetes-related variables are reported only for the exposed cohort because they are not applicable to the unexposed cohort.