Table 3

Predictors of OSA incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 353,683)

Risk factorsaIRR (95% CI)*P value
Age categories, years
 16–29Ref
 30–391.70 (0.92–3.14)0.092
 40–491.71 (0.94–3.11)0.080
 50–591.72 (0.95–3.13)0.075
 60–691.13 (0.62–2.05)0.700
 ≥700.44 (0.24–0.81)0.009
Sex
 WomenRef
 Men2.27 (2.09–2.46)<0.001
BMI categories
 Underweight/normal weight (<25 kg/m2)Ref
 Overweight (25–30 kg/m2)2.02 (1.54–2.64)<0.001
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2)8.29 (6.42–10.69)<0.001
 Missing3.68 (2.31–5.86)<0.001
Townsend deprivation quintile
 1Ref
 20.92 (0.82–1.04)0.202
 30.91 (0.81–1.03)0.129
 40.94 (0.84–1.06)0.303
 50.91 (0.80–1.03)0.152
 Missing0.97 (0.86–1.11)0.681
Smoker categories
 NonsmokerRef
 Previous smoker1.13 (1.04–1.22)0.004
 Smoker1.11 (1.00–1.22)0.051
 Missing0.89 (0.40–1.99)0.775
Ethnicity
 CaucasianRef
 Black Afro-Caribbean0.81 (0.57–1.16)0.252
 Chinese0.67 (0.35–1.30)0.238
 South Asian1.21 (0.98–1.49)0.080
 Mixed race0.98 (0.49–1.97)0.965
 Missing1.01 (0.93–1.08)0.874
eGFR category
 >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 1)Ref
 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 2)0.95 (0.87–1.03)0.223
 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 3)1.00 (0.88–1.14)0.987
 <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 4+5)0.93 (0.64–1.36)0.726
 Missing0.51 (0.26–0.99)0.046
Concurrent conditions within 15 months of cohort entry
 CVDs
  Heart failure1.41 (1.18–1.70)<0.001
  Ischemic heart disease1.22 (1.11–1.34)<0.001
  Stroke/TIA0.92 (0.78–1.07)0.284
  Atrial fibrillation1.23 (1.04–1.46)0.015
  Hypertension1.32 (1.23–1.43)<0.001
 Mental health conditions
  Anxiety1.07 (0.97–1.18)0.179
  Depression1.75 (1.61–1.91)<0.001
 Baseline drug use (within 60 days of index)
  Lipid-lowering drugs1.05 (0.96–1.15)0.296
Diabetes-related variables
 HbA1c category
  ≤6.5% (47.500 mmol/mol)Ref
  6.5–7.5% (47.501–58.500 mmol/mol)0.90 (0.82–1.00)0.043
  7.5–8.5% (58.501–69.400 mmol/mol)1.00 (0.88–1.13)0.977
  ≥8.5% (69.401 mmol/mol)0.98 (0.87–1.10)0.742
  Missing0.88 (0.78–0.98)0.025
 Concurrent diabetes-related conditions
  Foot disease1.23 (1.06–1.42)0.005
  Retinopathy/low vision/blindness0.95 (0.79–1.13)0.556
  Hypoglycemic event1.06 (0.83–1.35)0.656
 Baseline drug use (within 60 days of index)
  Insulin1.58 (1.42–1.75)<0.001
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, BMI category, Townsend deprivation quintile, smoking status, ethnicity, HbA1c category, eGFR category, record of hypoglycemic attack, diagnosis of foot disease, retinopathy, CVD (heart failure, ischemic heart disease, stroke/TIA, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension), mental health conditions (anxiety and depression), and prescription of lipid-lowering drugs and insulin within 60 days of the index date.