Table 1

Maternal, newborn, and infant characteristics in the study birth cohort

Cases with complete dataAll (with imputations)
Mothersn = 246
 Ethnicity (white)164 (66.7)
 Parity (primiparous)93 (37.8)
 Education (university)131 (53.3)
 Age (years)31.0 ± 0.29
 Age ≥35 years55 (22.4)
 Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)23.9 ± 0.32
 Obesity (BMI ≥30)31 (12.6)
 GDM26 (10.6)
 Gestational hypertensive disorders12 (4.9)
 Tobacco smoking16 (6.5)
 Drinking alcohol38 (15.4)
Newbornsn = 246
 Cesarean section72 (29.3)
 Sex (boy)125 (50.8)
 Gestational age (weeks)39.0 ± 0.1
 Birth weight (g)3,419 ± 29
  z score (WHO standards)0.35 ± 0.06
  z score (Canadian standards)0.10 ± 0.06
 SGA16 (6.5)
 LGA23 (9.4)
 Preterm13 (5.3)
Infants at 3 monthsn = 222n = 246
 Weight (g)6,294 ± 456,293 ± 45
 Weight z score (WHO standards)0.36 ± 0.060.36 ± 0.06
 ∆Weight z score (0–3 months)0.02 ± 0.070.02 ± 0.07
 Breastfeeding199 (90.9)222 (90.2)
Infants at 1 yearn = 197n = 246
 Weight (g)9,871 ± 799,871 ± 79
 Weight z score (WHO standards)0.50 ± 0.070.50 ± 0.07
 ∆Weight z score (3–12 months)0.14 ± 0.050.14 ± 0.05
 Skinfold thickness (mm)n = 197n = 246
  Triceps9.1 ± 0.159.1 ± 0.15
  Subscapular7.2 ± 0.127.2 ± 0.12
  Sum16.2 ± 0.2316.2 ± 0.23
 BP (mmHg)n = 147n = 246
  Systolic88 ± 1.088 ± 1.0
  Diastolic55 ± 0.755 ± 0.7
 cIMT (mm)n = 119N = 246
  Mean0.56 ± 0.0050.56 ± 0.004
  Maximum0.65 ± 0.0070.65 ± 0.007
  • Data presented are n (%) for frequency variables and mean ± SE for continuous variables.