Table 4

Adjusted associations of maternal and cord plasma cortisol and placental 11β-HSD2 with metabolic health indices in infants at age 1 year

Infant outcome (age 1 year)Maternal plasma cortisol (32–35 weeks)Cord plasma cortisolPlacental 11β-HSD2
Complete data cases
 Skinfold thickness0.1 (−1.1, 1.2)0.7 (1.4,0.03)*−0.2 (−1.0, 0.6)
 Fasting insulin−13.4 (−33.9, 13.5)−3.7 (−18.6, 13.9)17.3 (30.5,1.6)*
 Glucose/insulin ratio14.4 (−12.9, 50.2)2.4 (−12.8, 20.3)21.4 (3.0, 43.1)
 HOMA-IR−10.4 (−34.57, 22.6)−6.1 (−21.7, 12.7)19.9 (33.8,3.7)
 HOMA-β−14.2 (−37.16, 17.1)8.0 (−11.0, 31.0)−14.0 (−29.0, 3.9)
 Systolic BP−3.7 (−10.1, 2.6)−0.7 (−4.6, 3.1)−3.8 (−7.7, 0.1)
 Diastolic BP−4.0 (−8.2, −0.2)−0.9 (−3.4, 1.7)−0.7 (−3.3, 1.9)
 cIMT (maximum)0.05 (0.01, 0.08)−0.01 (−0.04, 0.02)0.01 (−0.03, 0.04)
All cases (n = 246, with imputations for missing data)
 Skinfold thickness0.2 (−1.00, 1.3)0.8 (1.5,0.1)−0.1 (−0.9, 0.6)
 Fasting insulin−12.0 (−34.3, 18.0)−0.4 (−16.5, 18.8)20.0 (33.1,4.3)
 Glucose/insulin ratio12.0 (−14.6, 46.8)−0.6 (−14.3, 15.4)23.9 (4.4, 47.0)
 HOMA-IR−5.7 (−30.3, 27.8)−1.9 (−17.7, 16.9)21.3 (35.1,4.5)
 HOMA-β−16.4 (−38.6, 13.9)12.6 (−5.0, 33.4)−16.4 (−31.5, 2.1)
 Systolic BP−5.2 (−11.2, 0.9)−0.7 (−4.4, 2.9)−3.7 (−7.9, 0.6)
 Diastolic BP−3.2 (−7.7, 1.22)−0.80 (−3.1, 1.5)−0.7 (−3.4, 2.0)
 cIMT (maximum)0.05 (0.01, 0.09)−0.02 (−0.05, 0.01)0.01 (−0.03, 0.04)
  • For biomarker outcomes, the data presented are the percentage change (95% CI) in the dependent variable (e.g., HOMA-IR) per log unit increase in the predictor variable (e.g., placental 11β-HSD2); for skinfold thickness and cIMT, the data presented are the mean changes in mm; for BP, the data presented are the mean changes in mmHg. The effect estimates were from generalized linear models adjusting for GDM, gestational hypertension, family history of diabetes, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, age, education, parity, smoking, alcohol use, mode of delivery, infant sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, weight z score changes between 0–3 months and 3–12 months of age, and breast feeding status in the first 3 months of life. Parsimonious final models were fitted excluding covariables with P > 0.2 that did not affect the comparisons. Therefore, only up to five covariables (GDM, prepregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, maternal smoking, and infant sex) were included in the final adjusted models.

  • ‡The sample sizes without imputations for missing data were 197 for skinfold thickness, 182 for fasting blood biomarkers, 147 for BP, and 119 for cIMT.

  • *P < 0.05; †P < 0.025; values in boldface type are significant at P < 0.025.