Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants in the ACHIEVE trial, stratified by diabetes status

CharacteristicWithout diabetes (n = 209)With diabetes (n = 82)P value
Age, years44.1 (11.7)48.4 (9.6)0.004
Male sex, n (%)100 (47.9)45 (54.9)0.28
Weight, lb220.4 (43.8)239.9 (50.4)0.001
BMI, km/m235.4 (6.8)38.4 (7.9)0.002
Fasting glucose, mg/dL95.8 (11.5)128.8 (51.5)<0.001
Race, n (%)0.84
 White118 (56.5)45 (54.9)
 Black78 (37.3)33 (40.2)
 Other13 (6.2)4 (4.9)
Hispanic ethnic group, n (%)10 (4.8)3 (3.7)0.68
Not a high school graduate, n (%)53 (25.4)34 (41.5)0.02
Health insurance, n (%)
 Medicaid176 (84.2)64 (78.1)0.21
 Medicare100 (47.9)46 (56.1)0.21
Unable to work/receiving disability, n (%)164 (78.5)65 (79.3)0.88
Psychiatric diagnosis, n (%)0.002
 Schizophrenia49 (23.4)36 (43.9)
 Schizoaffective disorder63 (30.1)21 (25.6)
 Bipolar disorder54 (25.8)10 (12.2)
 Major depression23 (11.0)12 (14.6)
 Other20 (9.6)3 (3.7)
Number of psychotropic medications3.1 (1.3)3.1 (1.7)0.97
Any antipsychotic medication, n (%)188 (90.0)73 (89.0)0.82
Atypical antipsychotic medication, n (%)172 (82.3)69 (84.2)0.71
Clozapine or olanzapine, n (%)39 (18.7)26 (31.7)0.02
Lithium or other mood stabilizer, n (%)102 (48.8)30 (36.6)0.06
Antidepressant medication, n (%)126 (60.3)49 (59.8)0.93
Current smoker, n (%)83 (39.7)35 (42.7)0.64
Psychiatric measures
 BASIS-24 score1.32 (0.85)1.19 (0.72)0.20
 CES-D score19.8 (10.6)20.2 (12.8)0.76
Have a care provider, n (%)33 (25.0)49 (30.8)0.27
Randomization group, n (%)
 Intervention110 (52.6)34 (41.5)0.09
 Control99 (47.4)48 (58.5)
  • Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.