Table 1

Characteristics of included trial comparisons

StudyParticipants*
M:F
Age* yBMI*
Kg/m2
Baseline HbAlc*
% (mmoL/mol)
Baseline FG* mmoL/LDesignDuration wkViscous
Fiber
ControlDose* g/dFood
Matrix
DietFundingCountry
Abutair, 20163647.5‡31.7C: 8.5 (69)C: 8.7P8psylliumno10.5powderusualn/rPalestine
18M:18FT: 8.5 (69)T: 9.0n/rpsyllium
Abutair, 20183647.5n/rn/r8.9P8psylliumno10.5powderusualn/rPalestine
18M:18Fn/rpsyllium
Aro, 1981953n/rn/rC: 11.5C12guar gumwheat21granulesusualA-IFinland
5M:4FT: 10.6DBflour
Baker, 198830C: 64.3n/rC: 11.9 (107)C: 11.7P9guar gumn/r15tabletsusualn/rUnited
n/rT: 59.1T: 12.0 (108)T: 12.1SBKingdom
Chen, 2003226425.5n/r9.1C4konjaccornstarch3.6capsulesNCEPA-ITaiwan
10M:12FDB
Chuang, 19921354.925.87.9 (63)10.6C8guar gumn/r15powderliquidATaiwan
n/rDBmeals
Cugnet-Anceau, 201053C: 61.8C: 29.0C: 7.5 (58)C: 8.4P8β-glucansoup3.5enrichedusualASweden
n/rT: 61.9T: 30.5T: 7.3 (56)T: 8.8DBsoups
Dall' Alba, 201344C: 63.6C: 29.3C: 7.0 (53)C: 7.9P6guar gumn/r10powderusualA-IBrazil
27M:17FT: 60.5T: 30.2T: 6.9 (52)T: 7.4OL
Feinglos, 201333C: 56.5n/rC: 7.6 (60)C: 11.8P12psylliumfiber-free10.2n/rrestrictedn/rUnited
n/rTA: 61.8TA: 7.4 (57)TA: 11.2DBplaceboStates
TB: 64.8TB: 79 (63)TB: 10.3
Fuessl, 19871861.330.1C: 9.3 (78)9.1C4guar gumwheat bran15granulesusualAUnited
12M:6FT: 9.7 (83)DBKingdom
Holman, 19872954.226.5n/rn/rC8guar gumn/r15tabletsn/rIUnited
24M:5Fn/rKingdom
Laajam, 19903951.531.211.4 (101)12.5C4guar gumbeef15granulesusualn/rSaudi
11M:28FDBgelatinArabia
Lalor, 19901956.531.5n/r10.9C12guar gumn/r15granulesusualA-IUnited
8M:11FDBKindom
Li, 20162285927C: 8.1 (65)C: 9.5P52β-glucanno3.98oatlow-fatIChina
n/rTA: 8.4 (68)TA: 9.9n/rβ-glucanhigh-fiber
TB: 8.3 (67)TB: 9.7
Liatis, 200941C: 66.5C: 27.0C: 6.9 (52)C: 7.7P3β-glucanno β-glucan3breadusualn/rGreece
n/rT: 60.2T: 29.6T: 7.3 (56)T: 8.8DB
Ma, 201318657.5‡C: 26.6C: 9.7 (83)C: 9.5P4β-glucanno2.55oatSDIIChina
n/rTA: 26.6TA: 9.9 (85)TA: 10.1SBβ-glucan
TB: 26.7TB: 9.8 (84)TB: 10.1
McGeoch, 20132760.931.56.8 (51)n/rC8β-glucanno4oat-basedusualAUnited
18M:9FNBβ-glucanproductsKingdom
Niemi, 1988186327C: 11.4 (101)C: 12.5C12guar gummicro-crystalline cellulose15n/rusualA-IFinland
n/rT: 12.1 (109)T: 11.7DB
Peterson, 1987166027.3C: 11.3 (100)C: 9.7C6guar gumno guar16.6granulesusualAUnited
10M:6FT: 11.2 (99)T: 9.5n/rgumKingdom
Rodriguez-Moran, 1998123C: 56.5C: 28.6n/rC: 7.8P6psylliummicro-crystalline cellulose15powderlow-fatn/rMexico
55M:68FT: 57.0T: 29.1T: 10.7DB
Sels, 1993126225.811.3 (100)9.8C12guar gumHF control bread11.2breadusualn/rNetherlands
6M:6Fn/r
Uusitupa, 1990947.8n/rn/r10.6C4guar gumwheat flour15granulesusualn/rFinland
4M:5FDB
Uusitupa, 198939C: 60.9n/rC: 9.4 (79)C: 12.8P12guar gumwheat flour15granulesusualAFinland
13M:26FT: 60.1T: 8.9 (74)T: 12.2DB
Uusitupa, 19841762n/rn/r9.7C18guar gumwheat flour21granulesusualn/rFinland
n/rDB
Vuksan, 199911M: 62n/rM: 7.4 (57)C: 9.3C3konjacwheat bran15.1biscuitNCEPICanada
5M:6FF: 59F: 8.3 (67)T: 9.6DB
Wolffenbutt, 1992126225.811.3 (100)9.8C12guar gumcontrol bread11.2powderusualn/rNetherlands
6M:6Fn/r
Ziai, 200536C: 53.6C: 27.5C: 9.1 (76)C: 9.9P8psylliummicro-crystalline cellulose10.2powderusualn/rIran
n/rT: 51.9T: 26.6T: 10.5 (91)T: 11.6DB
  • A, agency; A-l, agency-industry; C, control; Cr, crossover; DB, double blind, F, female; FG, fasting glucose; l, industry; M, male; NB, not blinded; NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program; n/r, not reported; OL, open label; P, parallel; SB, single blind; SDI, Structured Dietary lntervention; T, treatment; TA, treatment A; TB, treatment B.

  • *Mean values presented.

  • Dose of viscous fiber.