Table 1

Characteristics of cohort study participants stratified by diabetes type and DEB status*

CharacteristicsType 1 diabetes (n = 2,156)Type 2 diabetes (n = 149)
DEB (n = 458)No DEB (n = 1,698)P valueDEB (n = 75)No DEB (n = 74)P value
Age, years18.2 ± 3.817.6 ± 4.4<0.0121.1 ± 3.322.6 ± 3.6<0.01
Male sex (%)28.855.2<0.0132.039.20.36
Race/ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic black18.18.6<0.0156.045.90.58
 Hispanic13.511.018.725.6
 White66.478.021.321.7
 Other2.02.44.06.8
BMI, kg/m226.1 ± 5.323.2 ± 4.8<0.0137.8 ± 9.431.8 ± 8.7<0.01
BMIz1.0 ± 0.90.5 ± 0.9<0.012.0 ± 0.61.3 ± 1.1<0.01
Glycemic control
 HbA1c, %10.2 ± 2.08.9 ± 1.7<0.0111.0 ± 2.39.8 ± 2.5<0.01
Total daily insulin, units/kg/day0.9 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.40.550.7 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.50.22
CGM use (%)4.114.90.3814.816.10.76
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (%)
 Less than once a week15.20.0<0.0137.925.40.15
 Less than once a day0.010.00.00.0
 1–2 times/day17.214.934.926.9
 3 times/day17.954.215.226.9
 4–6 times/day43.79.910.619.4
 ≥7 times/day6.01.41.4
IS score5.2 ± 2.07.1 ± 2.5<0.012.5 ± 1.33.8 ± 1.9<0.01
DKA (≥1 episode) in preceding 6 months (%)12.04.7<0.015.34.1NS
CES-D score16.7 ± 10.38.3 ± 7.5<0.0120.9 ± 11.011.9 ± 10.5<0.01
PedsQL score72.4 ± 14.684.8 ± 11.8<0.0168.7 ± 17.480.8 ± 16.7<0.01
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *DEB status is based on DEPS-R category.