Table 1

Questions addressed by the nutrition Consensus Report expert panel

1. How is diabetes nutrition therapy defined?
2. How is MNT defined and provided?
3. How is diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) defined?
4. Is MNT effective in improving outcomes and quality of life?
5. What is the role of weight loss therapy in people with prediabetes or diabetes with overweight or obesity?
6. What is the role of weight loss on potential for diabetes remission?
7. What is the role of eating plans that result in energy deficits and weight loss in type 1 diabetes?
8. How does disordered eating factor into weight management?
9. How should the ideal weight loss plan for individuals with diabetes be determined?
10. What is the evidence to support specific eating patterns for the management of diabetes?
11. What is the evidence to support specific eating patterns in the management of type 2 diabetes?
12. What is the evidence to support specific eating patterns in the management of type 1 diabetes?
13. Do macronutrient needs differ for people with diabetes compared with the general population?
14. Do carbohydrate needs differ for people with diabetes compared with the general population?
15. What are the dietary fiber needs of people with diabetes?
16. How do glycemic index and glycemic load impact glycemia?
17. What are the dietary fat goals for people with diabetes?
18. Do trans fat intake recommendations differ for people with diabetes?
19. Should people with diabetes limit their dietary cholesterol intake?
20. What are the total protein needs of people with diabetes?
21. What is the impact of nonnutritive sweeteners and sugar alcohols?
22. What are the effects of alcohol consumption on diabetes-related outcomes?
23. What are the effects of alcohol consumption on hypoglycemia risk in people with diabetes?
24. What is the effectiveness of micronutrients on diabetes-related outcomes?
25. What is the role of herbal supplementation in the management of diabetes?
26. Does the use of metformin affect vitamin B12 status?
27. How does the timing of insulin injection around meals impact postprandial glucose response?
28. How should nutrition therapy vary based on the type and intensity of the glucose-lowering medications?
29. What is the role of the registered dietitian nutritionist/registered dietitian (RDN) in medication adjustment?
30. Does comprehensive diabetes nutrition therapy support cardiovascular risk factor reduction?
31. Do the dietary recommendations differ for people who are at risk for or have cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
32. Can lowering sodium intake reduce blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes?
33. Are protein needs different for people with diabetes and kidney disease?
34. How is diabetic gastroparesis best managed?
35. How is the risk of malnutrition in diabetic gastroparesis managed?
36. What nutrition therapy services or interventions best help people with prediabetes prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes?
37. What is the role of weight loss in diabetes prevention?
38. Does the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages impact risk of diabetes?
39. What eating patterns are recommended to manage prediabetes and to prevent diabetes?
40. What is the role of fat in the prevention of type 2 diabetes?
41. How does alcohol consumption impact risk of developing type 2 diabetes?
42. Do genetic, metabolomic, or microbiomic variants or other types of personalized nutrition prescriptions influence glycemic or other diabetes-related outcomes?