Table 1

Characteristics of the TODAY study participants who reach PO at time of insulin initiation overall and by SMBG%

CharacteristicAt time of insulin initiationSMBG% ≥80%SMBG% <80%P valueBMI-adjusted P value
n28261221
Age (years)15.8 ± 2.314.7 ± 2.116.0 ± 2.3<0.0001
Female65.367.264.70.7158
Race/ethnicity
 Black non-Hispanic38.334.439.40.0500
 Hispanic16.327.913.1
 White non-Hispanic7.14.97.7
 Other38.332.839.8
Highest household education
 High school or less55.954.156.40.5856
 College/associates degree31.529.532.1
 Graduate degree12.516.411.5
Household annual income
 <$25,00045.548.244.70.8998
 $25,000–$49,00035.833.936.3
 ≥$50,00018.717.919.0
Treatment group
 Metformin only39.041.038.50.6453
 Metformin and rosiglitazone27.743.029.0
 Metformin and lifestyle33.336.132.6
Physical examination
 BMI (kg/m2)35.5 ± 7.933.2 ± 7.336.2 ± 7.90.0088
 Systolic BP (mmHg)117.3 ± 11.5114.3 ± 11.2118.1 ± 11.50.0248
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)70.8 ± 9.368.4 ± 9.671.4 ± 9.10.0238
Metabolic
 HbA1c (%)9.6 ± 2.09.1 ± 1.99.7 ± 2.00.02230.0086
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)81.5 ± 22.175.7 ± 21.283.1 ± 22.2
Comorbidities
 Hypertension41.129.544.30.03710.2788
 LDL dyslipidemia9.94.911.30.13930.0788
 Triglyceride dyslipidemia34.024.636.70.07840.0477
 Microalbuminuria19.919.719.90.96720.9182
  • Data are mean ± SD or percent unless otherwise indicated. The P values are calculated from the t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and from the χ2 test for categorical variables. BP, blood pressure.