Table 1

Characteristics of the pregnant women in the intervention groups

nFish oil + placeboProbiotics + placeboFish oil + probioticsPlacebo + placeboP
Age110/109/109/11030.4 ± 4.830.8 ± 4.830.8 ± 4.630.4 ± 4.10.820*
Prepregnancy weight110/109/109/11082.8 ± 13.483.6 ± 14.981.7 ± 12.683.1 ± 12.80.765*
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)110/109/109/11030.0 ± 4.229.9 ± 4.729.3 ± 3.929.7 ± 4.20.594*
 Overweight62 (56.4)70 (64.2)68 (62.4)66 (60.0)0.663
 Obese48 (43.6)39 (35.8)41 (37.6)44 (40.0)
Primipara110/109/109/11053 (48.2)52 (47.7)52 (47.7)53 (48.2)1.000
Ethnic region110/109/109/1100.762
 European109 (99.1)107 (98.2)106 (97.3)108 (98.2)
 Asian0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.92)1 (0.91)
 Middle Eastern1 (0.91)1 (0.91)0 (0.0)1 (0.91)
 Other/mixed0 (0.0)1 (0.91)2 (1.83)0 (0.0)
College or university education100/94/99/9866 (66.0)59 (62.8)56 (56.6)58 (59.2)0.546
Previous GDM110/109/109/11010 (9.1)10 (9.2)10 (9.2)10 (9.1)1.000
Family history of diabetes93/89/94/8625 (26.9)§12 (13.5)16 (17.0)8 (9.3)0.012
Smoking during pregnancy100/95/98/982 (2.0)6 (6.3)5 (5.1)6 (6.1)0.437
Essential hypertension110/109/109/1104 (3.6)4 (3.7)2 (1.8)2 (1.8)0.759
Systolic blood pressure in early gestation (mmHg)110/108/109/109116.4 ± 10.7117.4 ± 11.3116.0 ± 9.5118.1 ± 9.70.437*
Diastolic blood pressure in early gestation (mmHg)110/108/109/10977.6 ± 9.076.2 ± 8.975.8 ± 7.776.6 ± 7.50.445*
Used probiotics before intervention110/109/109/11026 (23.6)18 (16.5)31 (28.4)20 (18.2)0.128
Used fish oil before intervention110/109/109/11015 (13.6)16 (14.7)18 (16.5)20 (18.2)0.801
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%).

  • *One-way ANOVA.

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡Fisher exact test.

  • §Significantly different from probiotics + placebo (P = 0.025) and placebo + placebo (P = 0.002).