Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Intervention group (n = 104)Control group (n = 101)
Sex
 Male57 (55%)47 (47%)
 Female47 (45%)54 (53%)
Age (years)17.9 (0.7)17.9 (0.6)
Ethnic origin
 Caucasian90 (87%)85 (84%)
 African American7 (7%)4 (4%)
 Asian or Pacific Islander2 (2%)4 (4%)
 Aboriginal0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Other5 (5%)8 (8%)
Weight (kg)72.5 (12.6)72.2 (13.9)
BMI (kg/m2)24.9 (4.5)24.9 (5.0)
Time since diabetes diagnosis (years)8.5 (4.1)7.7 (4.3)
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)9.4 (4.2)10.1 (4.2)
Total insulin dose (units/kg/day)0.92 (0.27)0.93 (0.28)
Insulin injections (≥3 injections/day)40 (38%)44 (44%)
Insulin pump60 (58%)52 (52%)
Continuous glucose monitoring4 (4%)3 (3%)
Education
 High school (currently enrolled or graduated)82 (79%)83 (82%)
 High school (dropped out)3 (3%)2 (2%)
 College8 (8%)10 (10%)
 University9 (9%)6 (6%)
 Other (home schooled)2 (2%)0 (0%)
Distance from diabetes clinic (km)
 ≤5075 (72%)86 (85%)
 51–10018 (17%)12 (12%)
 >10011 (11%)3 (3%)
Family structure
 Single-parent household22 (21%)26 (26%)
 Two-parent household75 (72%)73 (72%)
 Other7 (7%)2 (2%)
Current smoker6 (6%)9 (9%)
Alcohol use (≥3 units/week)12 (12%)8 (8%)
Cannabis use12 (11%)13 (13%)
  • Data are mean (SD) or n (%).