Table 2

Impact of intervention on the incidence of GDM and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in the different intervention groups

nFish oil + placeboProbiotics + placeboFish oil + probioticsPlacebo + placeboP
GDM diagnosis by IADPSG criteria*
 GDM in early pregnancy42/32/32/2319 (45.2)15 (46.9)14 (43.8)13 (56.5)0.80
 GDM at approx. 24–28 gw96/99/93/9136 (37.5)35 (35.4)38 (40.9)36 (39.6)0.87
 GDM, new diagnosis83/88/84/8427 (32.5)25 (28.4)31 (36.9)31 (36.9)0.59
GDM diagnosis by Finnish criteria§
 GDM in early pregnancy42/32/32/2311 (26.2)9 (28.1)7 (21.9)9 (39.1)0.56
 GDM at approx. 24–28 gw96/99/91/9123 (24.0)25 (25.3)26 (28.6)20 (22.0)0.77
 GDM, new diagnosis91/94/88/8720 (22.0)23 (24.5)23 (26.1)17 (19.5)0.74
Insulin and/or metformin medication30/29/28/237 (23.3)3 (10.3)7 (25.0)7 (30.4)0.33
OGTT results
 gw at OGTT97/99/94/9126.6 ± 2.526.3 ± 1.726.5 ± 2.526.2 ± 2.00.49ǁ
 Duration of intervention until OGTT97/99/94/9112.6 ± 3.512.6 ± 2.912.5 ± 3.112.1 ± 2.80.63ǁ
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)97/99/94/914.9 ± 0.384.9 ± 0.435.0 ± 0.604.8 ± 0.320.11ǁ
 Plasma glucose at 1 h (mmol/L)96/99/93/917.7 ± 1.57.5 ± 1.77.9 ± 1.97.7 ± 1.60.44ǁ
 Plasma glucose at 2 h (mmol/L)95/99/92/916.4 ± 1.16.5 ± 1.36.5 ± 1.76.4 ± 1.40.87ǁ
Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistanceEarly gestationLate gestationMean change (95% CI)Early gestationLate gestationMean change (95% CI)Early gestationLate gestationMean change (95% CI)Early gestationLate gestationMean change (95% CI)
gw at testing91/93/90/9014.0 ± 2.235.1 ± 0.8921.2 (20.7; 21.6)13.6 ± 2.135.3 ± 0.9621.6 (21.2; 22.1)13.9 ± 2.135.2 ± 0.9321.3 (20.8; 21.8)13.9 ± 2.035.2 ± 1.021.3 (20.8; 21.7)0.51ǁ
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)91/93/90/904.80 ± 0.384.71 ± 0.43−0.09 (−0.2; −0.0)4.73 ± 0.314.59 ± 0.37−0.14 (−0.2; −0.1)4.74 ± 0.374.64 ± 0.43−0.10 (−0.2; −0.0)4.73 ± 0.364.56 ± 0.41−0.17 (−0.3; −0.1)0.49ǁ
Insulin (mU/L)91/93/90/9012.1 ± 6.420.1 ± 10.48.0 (6.4; 9.6)10.1 ± 5.715.6 ± 6.85.5 (3.9; 7.0)10.6 ± 4.617.2 ± 8.86.6 (5.0; 8.2)11.7 ± 6.118.1 ± 12.66.4 (4.8; 8.0)0.16ǁ
HOMA2-IR91/93/90/901.54 ± 0.822.51 ± 1.280.98 (0.8; 1.2)1.29 ± 0.711.94 ± 0.840.65 (0.5; 0.8)1.35 ± 0.592.15 ± 1.10.80 (0.6; 1.0)1.48 ± 0.762.22 ± 1.450.75 (0.6; 0.9)0.12ǁ
  • Data presented as mean ± SD or n (%) unless marked otherwise.

  • *IADPSG criteria: 0 h ≥5.1 mmol/L, 1 h ≥10.0 mmol/L, 2 h ≥8.5 mmol/L, and one pathologic value sufficient to diagnose GDM.

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡GDM, new diagnosis = women with GDM diagnosed at early pregnancy excluded from analyses.

  • §Finnish criteria: 0 h ≥5.3 mmol/L, 1 h ≥10.0 mmol/L, 2 h ≥8.6 mmol/L, and one pathologic value sufficient to diagnose GDM.

  • ǁOne-way ANOVA.