Table 2

Se, Sp, and J for each risk factor to predict any IA, IAA-first, or GADA-first at age of 6 years or progression to T1D at 3 years from the appearance of multiple autoantibodies

At age of 6 yearsProgression to T1D at year 3
Any IAIAA-firstGADA-first
Risk factorSeSpJSeSpJSeSpJSeSpJ
Family history (FDR vs. GP)0.2140.8860.1000.2260.8860.1120.1930.8860.079
Sex (female vs. male)0.5470.4910.0380.5640.4910.0550.5320.4910.0230.5170.5980.115
HLA genotype (DR3/4 vs. others)0.4980.6190.1170.4850.6190.1040.4840.6190.103
Probiotics introduction age (<28 days vs. ≥28 days)0.9430.0780.0200.9450.0780.0230.9590.0780.036
Weight z score at 12 months (≥median vs. <median)0.5500.5090.0590.5110.5090.0200.6050.5090.114
First infant formula type during the first 7 days of life (extensively hydrolyzed vs. other)0.0450.9720.0170.0560.9720.0280.0370.9720.009
First infant formula type during the first 3 months of life (extensively hydrolyzed vs. other)0.0500.9660.0150.0600.9660.0250.0410.9660.006
Age at multiple persistent confirmed autoantibodies (months) (≥median vs. <median)0.7320.4960.228
Type of first autoantibody (≥2 autoantibodies vs. 1 autoantibody)0.3700.7560.127
rs1004446 (INS)0.4630.6060.0690.4880.6060.0930.4160.6060.0220.5380.5510.089
rs105170860.5110.5140.0250.5110.5140.0250.5080.486−0.0060.5450.4570.002
rs15344220.7960.2950.091
rs2327832 (TNFAIP3)0.3910.6580.049
rs1143678 (ITGAM)0.7460.2680.0140.7260.268−0.0060.7620.2680.030
rs12708716 (CLEC16A)0.4750.5610.0360.4420.5610.0030.4800.5610.042
rs2292239 (ERBB3)0.6240.4720.0960.6210.4720.0930.6400.4720.112
rs2476601 (PTPN22)0.3090.8020.1110.3210.8020.1230.2940.8020.095
rs2816316 (RGS1)0.3440.6730.0160.3280.6730.0000.3370.6730.010
rs3184504 (SH2B3)0.7550.3150.0690.7250.3150.0400.7910.3150.105
rs4597342 (ITGAM)0.5820.4360.0180.4560.5640.0200.5950.4360.031
rs4948088 (COBL)0.9360.0860.0220.9510.0860.0370.9210.0860.008