Table 4

Questionnaires’ scores over study duration

Intervention group (n = 104)Control group (n = 101)Between-group difference in change from enrollmentP value
CSQ (total score)
 Enrollment[101] 29.1 (2.8)[99] 29.3 (2.9)
 Intervention[71] 29.0 (2.7)[57] 27.9 (3.4)−1.17 (−2.24, −0.10)0.032*
 Follow-up[71] 28.6 (3.0)[67] 27.4 (4.6)−1.21 (−2.49, 0.07)0.064
DDS
 Total score
  Enrollment[99] 2.00 (0.79)[95] 2.01 (0.86)
  Intervention[68] 1.95 (0.76)[55] 2.18 (0.83)0.26 (0.00, 0.51)0.049*
  Follow-up[66] 2.16 (0.90)[65] 2.22 (0.94)0.06 (−0.20, 0.32)0.642
 Emotional burden of diabetes
  Enrollment[101] 2.43 (1.11)[101] 2.44 (1.27)
  Intervention[70] 2.32 (1.06)[59] 2.68 (1.17)0.36 (0.04, 0.69)0.027*
  Follow-up[70] 2.57 (1.21)[67] 2.64 (1.26)0.05 (−0.28, 0.39)0.756
 Physician-related distress
  Enrollment[102] 1.18 (0.40)[98] 1.14 (0.54)
  Intervention[70] 1.27 (0.58)[57] 1.32 (0.68)0.05 (−0.14, 0.25)0.578
  Follow-up[70] 2.6 (1.2)[67] 2.6 (1.3)0.02 (−0.21, 0.24)0.889
 Regimen-related distress
  Enrollment[103] 2.35 (1.17)[97] 2.45 (1.28)
  Intervention[70] 2.35 (1.02)[57] 2.68 (1.24)0.27 (−0.09, 0.62)0.140
  Follow-up[68] 2.62 (1.32)[67] 2.69 (1.29)0.20 (−0.17, 0.57)0.293
 Interpersonal distress
  Enrollment[101] 1.76 (0.90)[101] 1.82 (0.97)
  Intervention[71] 1.64 (0.92)[58] 1.95 (1.13)0.27 (−0.07, 0.61)0.117
  Follow-up[70] 2.6 (1.2)[67] 2.6 (1.3)0.13 (−0.17, 0.44)0.391
DQL
 Satisfaction
  Enrollment[103] 68.2 (9.9)[101] 67.8 (10.5)
  Intervention[71] 68.2 (9.5)[59] 66.3 (9.4)−1.5 (−4.0, 1.0)0.227
  Follow-up[70] 65.5 (10.8)[68] 65.8 (9.4)0.1 (−2.9, 3.0)0.964
 Impact
  Enrollment[103] 97.2 (11.4)[101] 99.2 (11.5)
  Intervention[71] 98.8 (9.5)[59] 100.3 (10.6)−0.4 (−3.1, 2.4)0.798
  Follow-up[70] 99.5 (11.3)[68] 99.6 (11.3)−1.7 (−4.8, 1.4)0.284
 Social worry and diabetes worry
  Enrollment[103] 55.9 (9.7)[101] 56.8 (9.7)
  Intervention[70] 56.7 (10.5)[59] 56.3 (9.4)−1.1 (−3.5, 1.3)0.376
  Follow-up[70] 55.6 (10.9)[68] 56.0 (9.3)−0.9 (−3.7, 1.8)0.493
 General health
  Enrollment[98] 2.96 (0.73)[97] 2.89 (0.78)
  Intervention[68] 2.79 (0.72)[56] 2.75 (0.84)−0.06 (−0.30, 0.17)0.594
  Follow-up[68] 2.71 (0.81)[65] 2.86 (0.77)0.19 (−0.05, 0.43)0.114
  • Data represent [n] mean (SD) and difference (95% CI) for between-group difference. P values reflect difference in change from the enrollment scores between the two groups.

  • *P < 0.05.