Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 1,755 patients with type 1 diabetes, GAD+, and GAD

Type 1 diabetes (n = 251)GAD+ (n = 122)GAD (n = 1,382)P value*P valueP value
Age at enrollment, years28.9 ± 12.441.7 ± 10.343.2 ± 10.3<0.0010.142<0.001
Male, %47.836.944.90.0400.0890.388
Ex- or current smoker, %21.823.825.20.6650.7340.254
Age at diagnosis, years20.4 ± 10.833.1 ± 5.433.5 ± 5.5<0.0010.228<0.001
Duration of diabetes, years8.0 (2.0, 12.0)6.0 (1.0, 13.0)7.0 (1.0, 15.0)0.6580.3200.401
Family history of diabetes, %24.356.656.1<0.0010.931<0.001
BMI, kg/m221.8 ± 3.724.5 ± 5.426.0 ± 4.7<0.0010.003<0.001
Waist (women), cm70.9 ± 9.278.9 ± 11.283.5 ± 11.1<0.0010.001<0.001
Waist (men), cm77.0 ± 11.285.1 ± 13.489.7 ± 11.30.0010.028<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg115.5 ± 15.4125.3 ± 20.6127.2 ± 17.0<0.0010.332<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg68.0 ± 9.673.9 ± 12.174.9 ± 10.2<0.0010.348<0.001
HbA1c, %8.5 ± 2.18.4 ± 2.47.8 ± 1.90.7460.014<0.001
FPG, mmol/L10.1 ± 5.59.6 ± 4.69.0 ± 3.70.3690.1160.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.9 ± 0.95.1 ± 1.25.1 ± 1.10.1080.9860.002
Triglyceride, mmol/L0.8 (0.5, 1.0)1.0 (0.7, 1.5)1.4 (1.0, 2.2)<0.001<0.001<0.001
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.7 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.51.3 ± 0.40.001<0.001<0.001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.8 ± 0.83.1 ± 1.53.0 ± 0.90.0430.4390.001
Triglyceride/HDL ratio0.5 (0.3, 0.7)0.7 (0.4, 1.2)1.2 (0.7, 2.0)<0.001<0.001<0.001
Hemoglobin, g/dL14.0 ± 1.413.9 ± 1.813.9 ± 0.80.5500.9200.431
Estimated GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2111.0 ± 21.997.3 ± 21.496.8 ± 23.1<0.0010.794<0.001
Urine ACR, mg/mmol1.0 (0.5, 2.3)1.5 (0.8, 7.6)1.7 (0.7, 8.2)0.0010.997<0.001
Anti-GAD detectable, %51.61000<0.001NA<0.001
C-peptide, pmol/L47.9 (47.9, 47.9)136.0 (47.9, 445.0)220.6 (47.9, 566.0)<0.0010.063<0.001
Overweight, %21.138.254.80.0120.001<0.001
Obese, %0.014.618.1<0.0010.407<0.001
Hypertension, %25.554.158.0<0.0010.403<0.001
Dyslipidemia, %57.866.172.00.1260.168<0.001
Microalbuminuria, %15.226.324.30.0120.6310.002
Macroalbuminuria, %4.912.713.80.0080.736<0.001
CKD, %1.66.68.50.0230.464<0.001
ESRD, %0.00.01.0NA0.6160.239
Retinopathy, %17.916.225.80.7000.0260.011
Sensory neuropathy, %9.611.513.70.5660.4980.076
Coronary heart disease, %0.43.34.30.0410.6010.002
Congestive heart failure, %0.00.01.1NA0.6260.147
Stroke, %0.00.01.6NA0.2500.037
PAD, %4.84.13.50.7670.7970.342
Medications, %
 Oral antidiabetic drugs6.662.564.8<0.0010.627<0.001
 Insulin100.039.328.4<0.0010.011<0.001
 Antihypertensive drugs8.829.528.5<0.0010.809<0.001
 RAS inhibitors7.925.221.1<0.0010.313<0.001
 Lipid-lowering drugs5.69.014.50.2130.095<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD or median (IQR) unless otherwise specified. FPG, fasting plasma glucose; NA, not applicable; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; RAS, renin-angiotensin system.

  • *Comparison between patients with GAD+ and patients with type 1 diabetes.

  • †Comparison between patients with GAD+ and GAD.

  • ‡Comparison between patients with GAD and patients with type 1 diabetes.