Table 1

Characteristics of the TEDDY study population

CategoryIA negative (n = 7,041)Any IA (n = 736)IAA-first (n = 281)GADA-first (n = 316)Multiple IAs without progression to T1D (n = 215)Multiple IAs with progression to T1D (n = 219)
CountryU.S.2,972 (42.2)246 (33.4)83 (29.5)123 (38.9)80 (37.2)65 (29.7)
Finland1,525 (21.7)187 (25.4)92 (32.7)62 (19.6)47 (21.9)67 (30.6)
Germany475 (6.7)53 (7.2)20 (7.1)14 (4.4)16 (7.4)21 (9.6)
Sweden2,069 (29.4)250 (34.0)86 (30.6)117 (37.0)72 (33.5)66 (30.1)
Family historyFDR: mother284 (4.0)35 (4.8)11 (3.9)14 (4.4)13 (6.0)12 (5.5)
FDR: father346 (4.9)74 (10.1)29 (10.3)32 (10.1)26 (12.1)30 (13.7)
FDR: sibling103 (1.5)33 (4.5)20 (7.1)7 (2.2)10 (4.7)14 (6.4)
GP6,308 (89.6)594 (80.7)221 (78.6)263 (83.2)166 (77.2)163 (74.4)
SexMale3,562 (50.6)404 (54.9)160 (56.9)167 (52.8)136 (63.3)109 (49.8)
Female3,479 (49.4)332 (45.1)121 (43.1)149 (47.2)79 (36.7)110 (50.2)
HLA genotypeDR3/42,668 (37.9)362 (49.2)137 (48.8)155 (49.1)116 (54.0)123 (56.2)
DR4/41,396 (19.8)139 (18.9)51 (18.1)52 (16.5)49 (22.8)37 (16.9)
DR4/81,226 (17.4)113 (15.4)59 (21.0)38 (12.0)27 (12.6)30 (13.7)
DR3/31,523 (21.6)96 (13.0)21 (7.5)68 (21.5)15 (7.0)17 (7.8)
FDR specific*228 (3.2)26 (3.5)13 (4.6)3 (0.9)8 (3.7)12 (5.5)
Probiotics introduction age≥28 days6,522 (92.6)694 (94.3)267 (95.0)300 (94.9)
<28 days519 (7.4)42 (5.7)14 (5.0)16 (5.1)
Weight z score at 12 months, mean (SD)−0.132 (1.022)−0.008 (1.033)−0.033 (1.055)0.045 (1.038)
First infant formula type during the first 7 days of lifeNo formula, no cow’s milk4,442 (63.1)473 (64.3)177 (63.0)205 (64.9)
No formula, only cow’s milk1 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Nonhydrolyzed formula2,237 (31.8)211 (28.7)79 (28.1)94 (29.7)
Partially hydrolyzed formula89 (1.3)10 (1.4)3 (1.1)4 (1.3)
Extensively hydrolyzed formula169 (2.4)32 (4.3)16 (5.7)11 (3.5)
Other formula103 (1.5)10 (1.4)6 (2.1)2 (0.6)
First infant formula type during the first 3 months of lifeNo formula, no cow’s milk1,880 (26.7)213 (28.9)87 (31.0)88 (27.8)
No formula, only cow’s milk17 (0.2)5 (0.7)0 (0.0)3 (0.9)
Nonhydrolyzed formula4,523 (64.2)450 (61.1)163 (58.0)202 (63.9)
Partially hydrolyzed formula220 (3.1)18 (2.4)6 (2.1)7 (2.2)
Extensively hydrolyzed formula218 (3.1)36 (4.9)17 (6.0)12 (3.8)
Other formula183 (2.6)14 (1.9)8 (2.8)4 (1.3)
Age at multiple persistent confirmed autoantibodies (months), mean (SD)60.4 (31.5)30.2 (21.3)
Type of first autoantibodyGADA only87 (40.5)53 (24.2)
IAA only80 (37.2)85 (38.8)
IA-2A only3 (1.4)4 (1.8)
Two or more autoantibodies45 (20.9)77 (35.2)
rs1004446 (INS)GG2,771 (39.4)332 (45.1)135 (48.0)130 (41.1)100 (46.5)110 (50.2)
AG3,287 (46.7)331 (45.0)118 (42.0)152 (48.1)95 (44.2)88 (40.2)
AA983 (14.0)73 (9.9)28 (10.0)34 (10.8)20 (9.3)21 (9.6)
rs10517086GG3,612 (51.3)363 (49.3)137 (48.8)164 (51.9)101 (47.0)97 (44.3)
AG2,878 (40.9)308 (41.8)114 (40.6)128 (40.5)96 (44.7)99 (45.2)
AA551 (7.8)65 (8.8)30 (10.7)24 (7.6)18 (8.4)23 (10.5)
rs1534422AA76 (35.3)50 (22.8)
AG106 (49.3)115 (52.5)
GG33 (15.3)54 (24.7)
rs2327832 (TNFAIP3)AA144 (67.0)134 (61.2)
AG66 (30.7)70 (32.0)
GG5 (2.3)15 (6.8)
rs1143678 (ITGAM)CC5,162 (73.3)545 (74.0)206 (73.3)234 (74.1)
CT1,708 (24.3)174 (23.6)69 (24.6)72 (22.8)
TT171 (2.4)17 (2.3)6 (2.1)10 (3.2)
rs12708716 (CLEC16A)AA3,086 (43.9)352 (47.9)125 (44.5)157 (49.8)
AG3,100 (44.1)322 (43.8)130 (46.3)136 (43.2)
GG837 (11.9)61 (8.3)26 (9.3)22 (7.0)
rs2292239 (ERBB3)GG3,266 (46.4)291 (39.5)112 (39.9)125 (39.6)
TG3,070 (43.6)359 (48.8)141 (50.2)152 (48.1)
TT704 (10.0)86 (11.7)28 (10.0)39 (12.3)
rs2476601 (PTPN22)GG5,665 (80.5)518 (70.4)194 (69.0)225 (71.2)
AG1,292 (18.3)205 (27.9)79 (28.1)87 (27.5)
AA84 (1.2)13 (1.8)8 (2.8)4 (1.3)
rs2816316 (RGS1)AA4,693 (66.7)485 (65.9)188 (66.9)210 (66.5)
AC2,111 (30.0)223 (30.3)81 (28.8)95 (30.1)
CC237 (3.4)28 (3.8)12 (4.3)11 (3.5)
rs3184504 (SH2B3)CC2,224 (31.6)175 (23.8)71 (25.3)70 (22.2)
CT3,446 (48.9)365 (49.6)133 (47.3)158 (50.0)
TT1,371 (19.5)196 (26.6)77 (27.4)88 (27.8)
rs4597342 (ITGAM)CC3,135 (44.5)311 (42.3)132 (47.0)128 (40.5)
CT3,091 (43.9)341 (46.3)116 (41.3)153 (48.4)
TT812 (11.5)84 (11.4)33 (11.7)35 (11.1)
rs4948088 (COBL)CC6,401 (90.9)689 (93.6)265 (94.3)293 (92.7)
AC619 (8.8)45 (6.1)16 (5.7)22 (7.0)
AA21 (0.3)2 (0.3)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)
  • Data are presented as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *FDR-specific HLA DR-DQ genotypes are DR4/4b, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9, and DR3/9.