Table 3

Positive anti-GAD antibodies versus (A) negative anti-GAD antibodies and (B) type 1 diabetes in relation to the hazard of incident complications and all-cause mortality using multivariate Cox proportional regression

Model 1Model 2Model 3
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
A. GAD+ vs. GAD
 CVD0.44 (0.21, 0.94)0.0340.44 (0.20, 0.95)0.0370.43 (0.19, 0.99)0.048
 ESRD0.96 (0.55, 1.65)0.8751.02 (0.57, 1.82)0.9470.67 (0.34, 1.31)0.239
 Severe hypoglycemia2.11 (1.44, 3.09)<0.0012.12 (1.43, 3.13)<0.0011.63 (1.04, 2.54)0.032
 All-cause mortality0.72 (0.38, 1.37)0.3170.76 (0.39, 1.45)0.3980.57 (0.26, 1.23)0.152
B. GAD+ vs. type 1 diabetes
 CVD1.29 (0.46, 3.59)0.6270.84 (0.29, 2.45)0.7460.79 (0.25, 2.43)0.676
 ESRD3.72 (1.53, 9.06)0.0042.83 (1.09, 7.38)0.0332.91 (1.03, 8.23)0.043
 Severe hypoglycemia0.96 (0.59, 1.59)0.8870.92 (0.55, 1.54)0.7471.06 (0.60, 1.89)0.839
 All-cause mortality1.01 (0.43, 2.36)0.9810.94 (0.38, 2.33)0.8910.82 (0.29, 2.29)0.698
  • Model 1, adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, and year of assessment. Model 2, adjusted for smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressures, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, log triglyceride, and variables in Model 1. Model 3, adjusted for log urine ACR; estimated GFR; baseline retinopathy; baseline history of CVD (for ESRD, severe hypoglycemia, all-cause mortality); baseline use of insulin, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure–lowering drugs, and antiplatelet drugs; and variables in Model 2.