Table 3

Pregnancy outcomes in the intervention groups

nFish oil + placeboProbiotics + placeboFish oil + probioticsPlacebo + placeboP
Maternal
 Duration of intervention until delivery (weeks)94/96/96/9225.8 ± 2.626.1 ± 2.625.4 ± 3.125.6 ± 2.50.27*
 Miscarriage <22 gw110/109/109/1103 (2.7)1 (0.9)3 (2.8)2 (1.8)0.84
 Stillbirth95/96/96/930001 (1.1)0.24
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension95/96/96/937 (7.4)4 (4.2)6 (6.3)4 (4.3)0.80
 Pre-eclampsia including superimposed95/96/96/931 (1.1)4 (4.2)3 (3.1)2 (2.2)
 Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy95/96/96/922 (2.1)3 (3.1)1 (1.0)4 (4.4)0.47
 Postpartum hemorrhage (mL)95/96/96/92400 (300)400 (300)400 (200)400 (200)0.96§
 Postpartum hemorrhage >1,000 mL95/96/96/926 (6.3)8 (8.3)5 (5.2)7 (7.6)0.83ǁ
Mode of delivery95/96/96/920.28ǁ
 Vaginal unassisted66 (69.5)77 (80.2)69 (71.9)65 (70.7)
 Vacuum extraction13 (13.7)5 (5.2)8 (8.3)13 (14.1)
 Elective cesarean5 (5.3)4 (4.2)10 (10.4)6 (6.5)
 Acute or emergency cesarean11 (11.6)10 (10.4)9 (9.4)8 (8.7)
Neonatal
 gw at delivery95/96/96/9239.8 ± 1.639.8 ± 1.439.4 ± 2.039.6 ± 1.40.34*
 Sex: girl95/96/95/9246 (48.4)51 (53.1)52 (54.7)43 (46.7)0.66ǁ
 Premature (<37 gw)95/96/96/924 (4.2)4 (4.2)11 (11.5)3 (3.3)0.05ǁ
 Post date (>42 gw)95/96/96/920 (0.0)2 (2.1)2 (2.1)1 (1.1)0.67
 Birth weight (g)95/96/96/923,610 ± 5163,620 ± 5393,530 ± 6473,600 ± 5030.70*
 Birth weight z score92/96/93/920.1 ± 1.00.1 ± 1.1−0.0 ± 1.10.1 ± 1.00.87*
 Small for gestational age (<10th percentile)92/96/92/927 (7.6)7 (7.3)8 (8.7)9 (9.8)0.93ǁ
 Macrosomia (>90th percentile)92/96/93/926 (6.5)13 (13.5)8 (8.6)13 (14.1)0.26ǁ
 Apgar points at 5 min94/96/96/919.1 ± 0.79.0 ± 0.78.9 ± 0.89.0 ± 0.80.41*
 Umbilical artery pH87/86/84/897.25 ± 0.097.26 ± 0.097.28 ± 0.087.28 ± 0.080.13*
 Hypoglycemia ≤2.4 mmol/L93/95/93/8920 (21.5)20 (21.1)19 (20.4)12 (13.5)0.48ǁ
 Phototherapy94/96/93/9116 (17.0)12 (12.5)11 (11.8)8 (8.8)0.40ǁ
 Admitted to neonatal intensive care unit94/96/94/9212 (12.8)13 (13.5)16 (17.9)11 (12.0)0.76ǁ
 Congenital malformations94/96/95/923 (3.2)4 (4.2)5 (5.3)2 (2.2)0.79
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%) unless marked otherwise.

  • ‡Median (interquartile range).

  • *One-way ANOVA.

  • †Fisher exact test.

  • §Kruskal-Wallis.

  • ǁχ2 test.

  • ¶Congenital malformations consist of five hip dislocations and two cardiac, one chromosomal, two urogenital, two skin, and two bone abnormalities.