Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with type 2 diabetes assigned randomly to the intervention or control group

Control groupIntervention group
N4853
Sex, male/female (%)58.3/41.769.8/30.2
Age (years)65.94 (8.42)67.55 (6.69)
Diabetes duration (years)21.53 (8.29)22.1 (7.00)
BMI (kg/m2)30.31 (5.0)29.65 (4.5)
HbA1c (%), percent in range8.34 (0.74)8.68 (0.87)
 7–7.514.67.5
 7.5–8.543.841.5
 8.5–1039.641.5
 >102.089.43
Fasting BG (mg/dL)157.8 (51.17)167.5 (72.34)
Total insulin (units/day)70.6 (38.4)74.2 (47.1)
Short-acting insulin (units/day)31.1 (21.2)36.1 (31.4)
Number of meal injections per day (%)
 143
 269
 33436
 412
MIX insulin33
Number of MIX injections per dayBID 1, TID 2BID 2, TID 1
Metformin (%)72.971.7
DPP4 inhibitors (%)14.67.5
SGLT2 inhibitors (%)27.724.5
GLP 1-RA (%)31.335.8
Sulphonylurea (%)4.20.0
Aspirin (%)62.562.3
β-Blockers (%)29.243.4
ACEi/ARBs (%)81.379.2
CCB (%)33.328.3
Statin treatment (%)66.784.9
Diabetic retinopathy (%)29.224.5
Diabetic nephropathy (%)39.634.0
  • Data are means (SD) unless stated otherwise. ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BID, twice a day; CCB, calcium channel blocker; DPP4, dipeptidyl-peptidase 4; GLP 1-RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; MIX, mixed insulin with NPH insulin and short analogue insulin lispo in 50:50 and/or 75:25 ratio; SGLT2, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2; TID, 3 times a day.