Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study patients

TotalNGRPre-DMDMP
n = 5,143n = 967n = 2,238n = 1,938
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years58.1 ± 10.454.7 ± 10.658.4 ± 10.259.4 ± 10.2<0.001
 Male sex3,724 (72.4)752 (77.8)1,619 (72.3)1,353 (69.8)<0.001
 BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 3.225.2 ± 3.025.6 ± 3.226.2 ± 3.2<0.001
 Hypertension3,248 (63.2)553 (57.2)1,303 (58.2)1,392 (71.8)<0.001
 Family history of CAD743 (14.4)155 (16.0)311 (13.9)277 (14.3)0.280
 Current smoker2,810 (54.6)535 (55.3)1,237 (55.3)1,038 (53.6)0.483
 Drinking1,444 (28.1)288 (29.8)626 (28.0)530 (27.3)0.384
Laboratory findings
 Glucose (mmol/L)5.7 ± 1.74.7 ± 0.45.1 ± 0.66.9 ± 2.2<0.001
 HbA1c (%)6.4 ± 1.15.4 ± 0.26.0 ± 0.27.4 ± 1.2<0.001
 Creatinine (μmol)76.0 ± 16.876.4 ± 15.675.3 ± 15.076.7 ± 19.20.116
 TC (mmol/L)4.13 ± 1.134.03 ± 1.084.20 ± 1.164.10 ± 1.11<0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.05 ± 0.281.05 ± 0.291.07 ± 0.281.02 ± 0.27<0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L)2.52 ± 1.022.47 ± 1.022.58 ± 1.022.49 ± 1.000.001
 TG (mmol/L)1.52 (1.13–2.10)1.45 (1.08–1.99)1.48 (1.09–2.03)1.60 (1.19–2.22)<0.001
 Lp(a) (mg/dL)15.8 (6.8–36.1)15.2 (68.1–35.5)16.8 (7.1–38.3)14.7 (6.6–33.8)0.017
 Fibrinogen (μg/mL)3.2 ± 0.83.0 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.73.3 ± 0.8<0.001
 Big ET-1 (pmol/mL)0.27 (0.21–0.40)0.27 (0.20–0.38)0.26 (0.20–0.38)0.29 (0.22–0.41)<0.001
 NT-ProBNP (pg/mL)152.0 (103.1–211.5)137.5 (52.8–190.1)153.0 (106.6–211.2)156.9 (110.4–221.9)<0.001
Diseased vessels
 One vessel1,897 (36.9)400 (41.4)865 (38.7)632 (32.6)
 Two vessels1,266 (24.6)246 (25.4)563 (25.2)457 (23.6)
 Multivessels1,980 (38.5)321 (33.2)810 (36.2)849 (43.8)
 LVEF (%)63.3 ± 8.463.8 ± 7.863.5 ± 8.562.7 ± 8.60.001
 GS28 (12–52)24 (11–43)24 (12–47)32 (16–60)<0.001
Medications
 Baseline statins3,798 (73.8)701 (72.5)1,636 (73.1)1,461 (75.4)0.139
 Follow-up statins4,981 (96.9)929 (96.1)2,178 (97.3)1,874 (96.7)0.158
 Aspirin4,229 (82.2)798 (82.5)1,815 (81.1)1,616 (83.4)0.151
 ACEIs/ARBs1,418 (27.6)260 (26.9)611 (27.3)547 (28.2)0.697
 β-Blockers2,717 (52.8)495 (51.2)1,166 (52.1)1,056 (54.5)0.160
 Antidiabetes drugs
  OADs1,098 (21.3)1,098 (56.7)
  Insulin605 (11.8)605 (31.2)
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (25th–75th percentile), or n (%). ACEIs, ACE inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers; OADs, oral antidiabetes drugs.