Table 1

HRs and 95% lower and upper confidence limits for the age-adjusted effect of the mean HbA1c on the risk of any-CVD and MACE

No mediators1.495NA1.3271.685<0.00011.677NA1.4191.982<0.0001
SBP (mmHg)1.445−10.071.2801.632<0.00011.608−10.111.3591.904<0.0001
Pulse (bpm)1.434−12.391.2671.623<0.00011.582−14.021.3311.881<0.0001
Mean pulse (bpm)1.359−27.541.1981.541<0.00011.482−28.771.2431.767<0.0001
Pulse pressure (mmHg)1.608−10.221.3581.904<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)1.430−13.171.2651.616<0.00011.609−10.101.3561.908<0.0001
Mean total cholesterol (mg/dL)1.395−20.151.2321.581<0.00011.588−13.121.3341.890<0.0001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)*1.425−14.261.2601.611<0.00011.591−12.681.3391.891<0.0001
Mean triglycerides (mg/dL)*1.417−15.861.2511.604<0.00011.584−13.681.3311.885<0.0001
Mean LDLc (mg/dL)1.414−16.461.2491.600<0.00011.603−10.911.3481.906<0.0001
AER (mg/24 h)*1.383−22.571.2161.574<0.00011.519−23.381.2671.820<0.0001
AER >300 mg/24 h (Y vs. N)1.446−10.011.2771.636<0.00011.591−12.641.3371.894<0.0001
Any AER >300 mg/24 h (Y vs. N)1.551−18.621.3021.847<0.0001
AER >40 mg/24 h (Y vs. N)1.432−12.671.2621.626<0.00011.594−12.191.3331.906<0.0001
Any AER >40 mg/24 h (Y vs. N)1.405−18.261.2401.591<0.00011.595−12.121.3371.902<0.0001
Sustained AER >30 mg/24 h (Y vs. N)1.445−10.071.2721.642<0.00011.628−7.201.3611.948<0.0001
eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)1.604−10.811.3531.901<0.0001
eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (Y vs. N)1.604−10.781.3521.902<0.0001
  • Data are shown first unadjusted (no mediators) and then adjusted for potential mediators one at a time, with the PC (% mediation) of the HbA1c effect. All results are based on Cox models further adjusted for age. A “mean” covariate refers to a time-dependent covariate with value equal to the updated weighted mean of the covariate preceding the time of a CVD or MACE event. Other values are the current or most recent value for the covariate preceding the time of an event. Only factors with a PC (mediation) of at least 10% (in absolute value) for either any-CVD or MACE are shown. Complete results are reported in Supplementary Data. LDLc, LDL cholesterol; LL, lower limit; N, no; UL, upper limit; Y, yes.

  • *Computed on the log scale.