Table 2

Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for cognitive outcomes by diabetes status, glycemic control, and diabetes duration among participants who were cognitively normal at visit 5

Incident dementiaIncident MCI
n/N (%)Adjusted HR (95% CI)n/N (%)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Diabetes
 No164/2,690 (6.1)1 (reference)302/1,938 (15.6)1 (reference)
 Yes111/1,317 (8.4)1.08 (0.83, 1.39)153/882 (17.4)1.23 (1.00, 1.51)*
Diabetes and glycemic control
 No diabetes164/2,690 (6.1)1 (reference)302/1,938 (15.6)1 (reference)
 Diabetes, HbA1c <7%77/968 (8.0)1.01 (0.76, 1.35)105/655 (16.0)1.11 (0.88, 1.40)
 Diabetes, HbA1c ≥7% (compared with no diabetes)32/336 (9.5)1.16 (0.77, 1.74)48/218 (22.0)1.73 (1.26, 2.38)***
 Diabetes, HbA1c ≥7% (compared with HbA1c <7%)32/336 (9.5)1.15 (0.75, 1.77)48/218 (22.0)1.56 (1.10, 2.21)*
Diabetes duration
 <5 years17/336 (5.1)1 (reference)30/226 (13.3)1 (reference)
 ≥5 years89/921 (9.7)1.91 (1.09, 3.35)*118/617 (19.2)1.58 (1.04, 2.41)*
  • Models are adjusted for age, race-center, sex, education level, cigarette smoking status (current/former/never), drinking status (current/former/never), APOE e4 (zero, one, or two alleles), hypertension (yes/no), history of stroke (yes/no), and history of CHD (yes/no). Diabetes was defined based on self-reported diagnosis, use of glucose-lowering medication, or HbA1c of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). HbA1c of 7% is equivalent to 53 mmol/mol.

  • †Among persons with diabetes.

  • n/N: the number of incident cases (n) among the total number of participants in that group (N).

  • *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001.