Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics for Program ACTIVE II

OutcomeCBT (N = 36)CBT+EXER (N = 34)EXER (N = 34)UC (N = 36)P value
Age, years, mean (SD)57.9 (10.9)57.1 (10.7)54.6 (10.7)54.2 (10.4)0.367
Sex0.788
 Male10 (27.8)6 (17.7)8 (23.5)9 (25.0)
 Female26 (72.2)28 (82.4)26 (76.5)27 (75.0)
Race0.376
 White27 (79.4)25 (78.1)25 (75.8)22 (62.9)
 Not white7 (20.6)7 (21.9)8 (24.2)13 (37.1)
Marital status0.935
 Now married19 (52.8)14 (41.2)20 (58.8)20 (55.6)
 Never married5 (13.9)7 (20.6)4 (11.8)5 (13.9)
 Divorced8 (22.2)9 (26.5)5 (14.7)7 (19.4)
 Separated/widowed/other4 (11.1)4 (11.8)5 (14.7)4 (11.1)
Education0.066
 Less than or equal to high school13 (36.1)7 (20.6)5 (14.7)3 (8.3)
 Trade school/part college8 (22.2)14 (41.2)15 (44.1)13 (36.1)
 4-Year college or higher15 (41.7)13 (38.2)14 (41.2)20 (55.6)
Income0.823
 ≤$20,0007 (20.6)8 (25.0)9 (27.3)9 (26.5)
 $21,000–40,00014 (41.2)13 (40.6)10 (30.3)9 (26.5)
 $41,000–60,0006 (17.7)4 (12.5)8 (24.2)5 (14.7)
 ≥$61,0007 (20.6)7 (21.9)6 (18.2)11 (32.4)
Home ownership (yes)23 (67.7)21 (65.6)21 (67.7)29 (82.9)0.363
Work outside home (yes)16 (47.1)17 (53.1)21 (63.6)21 (60.0)0.528
Household size, mean (SD)2.49 (1.3)1.88 (0.9)2.33 (1.3)2.32 (1.2)0.177
Difficulty making ends meet0.637
 Hard or very hard17 (50.0)13 (40.6)15 (45.5)22 (62.9)
 50/5013 (38.2)14 (43.8)15 (45.5)10 (28.6)
 Easy or very easy4 (11.8)5 (15.6)3 (9.1)3 (8.6)
Medications, N (%)NS
 Diet and exercise only2 (5.9)2 (5.6)2 (6.1)3 (9.1)
 Single noninsulin medication (e.g., metformin)8 (23.5)1 (27.8)9 (27.3)13 (39.4)
 Two or more noninsulin medications (e.g., metformin plus sulfonylureas)7 (20.6)10 (27.8)8 (24.2)9 (27.3)
 Basal insulin only9 (26.5)7 (19.4)6 (18.2)2 (6.1)
 Intensive bolus insulin (e.g., basal bolus insulin or premixed insulin)8 (23.5)7 (19.4)8 (24.2)6 (18.2)
Health insurance (yes)30 (88.2)29 (90.6)30 (90.9)29 (82.9)0.716
Current PCP (yes)34 (100.0)30 (93.8)31 (93.9)33 (94.3)0.542
Current endocrinologist (yes)11 (32.4)7 (21.9)8 (24.2)8 (22.9)0.748
  • Figures are counts (%) until mentioned otherwise.

  • PCP, primary care physician.