Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population across groups in the continuous glucose crossover trial (n = 20)

Group 1 order (n = 10; 45 observation days)*Group 2 order (n = 10; 52 observation days)Entire (n = 20)P between groups
Age, year51.1 ± 9.351.7 ± 13.351.4 ± 11.20.97
Weight, kg91.3 ± 14.290.8 ± 17.191.1 ± 15.30.58
WC, cm109.2 ± 9.3107.5 ± 10.4108.4 ± 9.60.97
FPG, mg/dL113.7 ± 20.6107.9 ± 9.8110.9 ± 16.20.66
HbA1c
 %5.8 ± 0.85.3 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.70.08
 mmol/mol39.7 ± 8.733.9 ± 4.336.8 ± 7.30.08
Insulin, µIU/mL16.5 ± 9.514.5 ± 8.715.5 ± 8.90.63
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg129.3 ± 13.2137.0 ± 17.4133.1 ± 15.60.22
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg82.6 ± 13.979.6 ± 12.281.1 ± 12.80.91
Triglycerides, mg/dL131.6 ± 37.8124.2 ± 66.7127.9 ± 52.90.44
HDL, mg/dL43.7 ± 8.649.5 ± 16.746.6 ± 13.20.53
ALT, units/L35.0 ± 15.430.4 ± 17.632.7 ± 16.30.44
AST, units/L27.1 ± 8.423.7 ± 8.325.4 ± 8.30.63
  • Values are presented as the mean ± SD for continuous variables. P value according to a Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; IU, international units; WC, waist circumference.

  • *Group 1 started with a yogurt shake.

  • †Group 2 started with a Mankai shake.