Table 1

Baseline (visit 5, 2011–2013) population characteristics by diabetes* status

TotalNo diabetesDiabetes
HbA1c <7%HbA1c ≥7%
N (%)5,0993,318 (65.7)1,276 (25.3)459 (9.1)
Age, years, mean (SD)75.8 (5.0)75.8 (5.0)76.0 (5.1)75.1 (4.7)
Female59.260.058.355.3
Black21.417.326.735.7
Education
 Less than high school12.99.917.621.4
 High school42.541.944.042.5
 Higher than high school44.748.238.536.2
Current smoking5.85.86.15.4
Current drinking49.954.942.534.0
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)28.8 (5.7)27.8 (5.2)30.2 (5.8)32.0 (6.2)
Hypertension74.068.184.088.3
History of CHD13.711.617.817.7
History of stroke3.22.44.07.0
APOE e4 alleles
 072.372.272.372.5
 125.725.925.225.5
 22.11.92.52.0
Cognitive outcomes after visit 5
 Dementia11.110.012.515.5
 MCI16.816.216.623.2
 Cognitive impairment20.119.020.725.9
  • Data are percentages unless otherwise noted. The three-level categorization of diabetes and glycemic control excludes 46 persons missing HbA1c data.

  • *Diabetes was defined based on self-reported diagnosis, use of glucose-lowering medication, or HbA1c of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). HbA1c of 7% is equivalent to 53 mmol/mol.

  • †Dementia was categorized using information from study visits, telephone calls with participants or their proxy, or surveillance of hospitalizations and deaths. MCI was defined only in persons examined at visit 6 based on neuropsychological testing. Cognitive impairment includes the following progression in cognitive status from visit 5 to 6: 1) cognitively normal at visit 5, MCI or dementia at visit 6, or dementia from surveillance, or 2) MCI at visit 5, dementia at visit 6, or dementia from surveillance.