Table 1

Baseline (visit 5, 2011–2013) population characteristics by diabetes* status

TotalNo diabetesDiabetes
HbA1c <7%HbA1c ≥7%
N (%)5,0993,318 (65.7)1,276 (25.3)459 (9.1)
Age, years, mean (SD)75.8 (5.0)75.8 (5.0)76.0 (5.1)75.1 (4.7)
 Less than high school12.99.917.621.4
 High school42.541.944.042.5
 Higher than high school44.748.238.536.2
Current smoking5.
Current drinking49.954.942.534.0
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)28.8 (5.7)27.8 (5.2)30.2 (5.8)32.0 (6.2)
History of CHD13.711.617.817.7
History of stroke3.
APOE e4 alleles
Cognitive outcomes after visit 5
 Cognitive impairment20.119.020.725.9
  • Data are percentages unless otherwise noted. The three-level categorization of diabetes and glycemic control excludes 46 persons missing HbA1c data.

  • *Diabetes was defined based on self-reported diagnosis, use of glucose-lowering medication, or HbA1c of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). HbA1c of 7% is equivalent to 53 mmol/mol.

  • †Dementia was categorized using information from study visits, telephone calls with participants or their proxy, or surveillance of hospitalizations and deaths. MCI was defined only in persons examined at visit 6 based on neuropsychological testing. Cognitive impairment includes the following progression in cognitive status from visit 5 to 6: 1) cognitively normal at visit 5, MCI or dementia at visit 6, or dementia from surveillance, or 2) MCI at visit 5, dementia at visit 6, or dementia from surveillance.