Table 1

Patient characteristics

ParameterAll patients with diabetes (n = 120)High risk (type 1) (n = 50)Average risk (type 2) (n = 70)P
Clinical history
 Age (year)52 ± 1340 ± 760 ± 8<0.0001
 Male sex65 (54)29 (58)36 (51)0.51
 Atherosclerosis risk factors
  Hypertension102 (85)50 (100)52 (74)<0.0001
  Tobacco use27 (23)19 (38)8 (11)0.02
  Hyperlipidemia68 (57)22 (44)44 (66)0.0006
  Family history of CAD28 (23)7 (14)21 (30)0.04
 Framingham risk score*10.5 (7, 17)8.0 (4, 12)13.0 (10, 24)<0.0001
 Duration of diabetes (year)17 ± 1126 ± 811 ± 9<0.0001
 Medications
  ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker77 (64)30 (60)47 (67)0.42
  β-Blocker30 (25)11 (22)19 (27)0.52
  Aspirin52 (43)11 (22)41 (59)<0.0001
  Statin57 (48)22 (44)35 (50)0.52
  Insulin79 (66)50 (100)29 (41)<0.0001
  Sulfonylureas18 (26)
  Metformin35 (50)
Baseline assessments
 Blood pressure (mmHg)
  Systolic143 ± 22150 ± 24139 ± 200.007
  Diastolic80 ± 1284 ± 1276 ± 120.0009
 Lipid panel (mg/dL)**
  Total cholesterol200 ± 50213 ± 56190 ± 450.02
  LDL112 ± 42124 ± 45103 ± 380.02
  HDL55 ± 1961 ± 2551 ± 130.02
 Electrocardiogram, Q wave6 (5)1 (2)5 (7)0.20
 HbA1c (%)7.6 ± 1.5
 BMI (kg/m2)28 ± 624 ± 431 ± 6<0.0001
 GFR <60 mL/min62 (54)50 (100)11 (17)<0.0001
 Dialysis24 (20)24 (48)0 (0)<0.0001
 Cine MRI, LVEF (%)63 ± 964 ± 963 ± 90.45
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Median (interquartile range), calculated in the 106 patients who had all relevant blood tests.

  • **Obtained in 112 patients.

  • †Minnesota codes 1-1-1 to 1-2-7.

  • ‡HbA1c levels obtained only in patients with type 2 diabetes.