Table 4

Change in psychological outcomes at posttreatment from baseline

OutcomeTreatment, least square mean (SE)P value compared with UC
CBT (N = 24)CBT+EXER (N = 25)EXER (N = 30)UC (N = 28)CBTCBT+EXEREXER
Depression*
 BDI-II−15.24 (1.95)−18.12 (1.81)−14.11 (1.91)−8.21 (1.88)0.011<0.0010.021
 Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire−11.62 (2.57)−11.96 (2.53)−12.58 (2.69)−2.85 (2.55)0.0180.0100.006
 Diabetes Distress**−0.66 (0.17)−0.57 (0.17)−0.69 (0.17)0.05 (0.16)0.0030.0080.001
SF-12**
 Physical Component Score−2.14 (1.66)1.84 (1.59)−1.06 (1.69)−5.51 (1.62)0.1470.0010.047
 Mental Component Score12.87 (2.50)10.09 (2.45)11.80 (2.61)6.34 (2.49)0.0690.2700.109
DQOL**6.75 (2.09)12.19 (2.09)10.81 (2.23)0.86 (2.29)0.061<0.0010.001
 Diabetes7.72 (3.51)6.44 (3.52)9.44 (3.71)−2.84 (3.84)0.0450.0680.014
 Impact of Diabetes4.17 (1.87)7.32 (1.84)4.20 (1.96)0.06 (1.85)0.1230.0050.103
 Satisfaction with Diabetes12.71 (3.37)21.61 (3.47)19.12 (3.56)7.22 (3.35)0.2540.0030.010
 Social Worry8.28 (8.91)5.98 (5.78)12.93 (6.58)0.68 (7.59)0.4790.5790.130
  • Results are ANCOVA. Treatment group comparisons were adjusted for baseline education status and baseline outcome values.

  • DQOL, Diabetes Quality of Life Measure.

  • P values reaching statistical significance appear in boldface type.

  • *Difference scores with negative values indicate improvement in constructs (e.g., depressive symptoms) from baseline to postintervention assessment.

  • **Scored with positive difference scores indicating improvement in psychosocial outcomes.