Table 3

Glycemia improves after GOP, RYGB, and VLCD interventions

Primary comparison (GOP vs. Saline)Secondary comparisons (GOP vs. RYGB, GOP vs. VLCD)
GOPSalineRYGBVLCD
Fructosamine (μmol/L)
 Baseline304.6278.1250.3252.4
 Week 4260.5266.4216.4223.9
 ∆Week 4−44.1 (−62.7, −25.5)−11.7 (−18.9, −4.5)−34.0 (−45.6, −22.4)−28.5 (−40.4, −16.7)
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP32.4 (12.9, 51.9)**10.2 (−9.8, 30.2)15.6 (−6.6, 35.8)
Fructosamine (μmol/L)a
 ∆Week 4−44.1 (−57.2, −31.1)−11.7 (−15.6, −7.9)N/AN/A
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP33.2 (19.0, 45.8)***N/AN/A
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)
 Baseline9.97.78.37.9
 Week 45.86.75.85.9
 ∆Week 4−4.1 (−6.3, −1.9)−1.0 (−1.7, −0.3)−2.5 (−3.3, −1.7)−2.0 (−3.0, −1.0)
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP3.1 (0.8, 5.3)*1.6 (0.7, 3.9)2.0 (−0.3, 4.5)
Fasting insulin (mIU/L)
 Baseline16.314.419.718.0
 Week 418.212.012.310.1
 ∆Week 41.9 (−0.8, 4.6)−2.4 (−5.2, 0.4)−7.4 (−10.4, −4.3)−7.9 (−11.2, −4.6)
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP−4.8 (−8.0, −0.5)*−9.2 (−13.4, −5.1)−9.8 (−14.3, −5.3)
Mean glucose from CGM (mmol/L)
 Baseline10.47.48.5N/A
 Week 46.9716.0N/A
 ∆Week 4−3.6 (−5.2, −1.9)−0.4 (−1.4, 0.7)−2.5 (−3.6, −1.4)N/A
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP3.2 (1.1, 5.3)**1.1 (−0.9, 3.0)N/A
MAG
 Baseline2.31.71.7N/A
 Week 41.551.61.6N/A
 ∆Week 4−0.75 (−1.08, −0.41)−0.1 (−0.5, 0.2)−0.1 (−0.5, 0.3)N/A
 ∆Week 4 vs. GOP0.6 (0.2, 1.1)*0.6 (0.1, 1.1)N/A
  • Data are displayed as means (95% CI) for comparisons against baseline and for comparison of treatment effects between groups. N/A, not applicable; ΔWeek 4, treatment effect between baseline and week 4; ΔWeek 4 vs. GOP, difference in treatment effect compared with GOP arm.

  • aAdditional results based on sensitivity analysis (unpaired t test) of fitted values derived from ANCOVA model, adjusting for baseline fructosamine levels and any potential interaction between baseline and treatment effect.

  • *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 for primary comparison of treatment effect (unpaired t test) between GOP and Saline arms.