Table 3

Associations between total n-6 PUFAs and LA and type 2 diabetes risk in NHS, NHSII, and HPFS*

Quintiles of fatty acid intake (% energy)P for trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
n-6 PUFAs
 NHS
  Median (range)2.62 (0.66, 3.09)3.47 (3.09, 3.82)4.16 (3.82, 4.53)4.95 (4.53, 5.49)6.32 (5.49, 20.8)
  Cases/person-years1,800/447,9831,780/448,7671,922/448,9951,882/448,9481,991/448,694
  Model 111.01 (0.94, 1.07)1.10 (1.03, 1.17)1.08 (1.01, 1.15)1.16 (1.08, 1.23)<0.001
  Model 210.96 (0.90, 1.03)1.02 (0.95, 1.09)0.97 (0.90, 1.03)1.01 (0.95, 1.08)0.71
  Model 310.95 (0.89, 1.02)1.00 (0.93, 1.07)0.94 (0.87, 1.01)0.97 (0.90, 1.06)0.53
 NHSII
  Median (range)3.41 (0.87, 3.84)4.17 (3.84, 4.46)4.76 (4.46, 5.08)5.43 (5.08, 5.88)6.60 (5.88, 24.77)
  Cases/person-years953/355,884996/357,3361,061/358,2691,189/358,4911,261/358,163
  Model 111.04 (0.95, 1.13)1.09 (0.99, 1.19)1.19 (1.09, 1.30)1.22 (1.12, 1.33)<0.001
  Model 210.96 (0.88, 1.05)0.95 (0.86, 1.03)0.99 (0.91, 1.08)0.98 (0.90, 1.07)>0.99
  Model 310.93 (0.85, 1.02)0.91 (0.82, 1.00)0.94 (0.85, 1.04)0.91 (0.80, 1.02)0.21
 HPFS
  Median (range)3.53 (0.94, 4.04)4.43 (4.04, 4.79)5.13 (4.79, 5.50)5.91 (5.50, 6.43)7.24 (6.43, 21.1)
  Cases/person-years691/179,560688/181,090756/181,399743/181,415729/180,777
  Model 111.00 (0.90, 1.11)1.12 (1.01, 1.24)1.09 (0.98, 1.21)1.07 (0.96, 1.19)0.11
  Model 210.94 (0.84, 1.04)1.03 (0.92, 1.14)0.98 (0.88, 1.09)0.97 (0.87, 1.08)0.83
  Model 310.86 (0.77, 0.96)0.90 (0.80, 1.01)0.82 (0.73, 0.92)0.74 (0.65, 0.85)<0.001
 Pooled
  Model 210.96 (0.91, 1.00)1.00 (0.95, 1.05)0.98 (0.93, 1.02)0.99 (0.95, 1.04)0.87
  Model 310.93 (0.88, 0.97)0.95 (0.91, 1.00)0.92 (0.87, 0.97)0.91 (0.85, 0.96)0.001
LA
 NHS
  Median (range)2.54 (0.65, 3.01)3.39 (3.01, 3.73)4.07 (3.73, 4.44)4.86 (4.44, 5.40)6.23 (5.40, 20.8)
  Cases/person-years1,800/447,9641,792/448,7931,907/448,9071,898/449,0431,978/448,681
  Model 111.01 (0.95, 1.08)1.09 (1.02, 1.16)1.09 (1.02, 1.16)1.15 (1.08, 1.22)<0.001
  Model 210.97 (0.91, 1.04)1.02 (0.95, 1.08)0.98 (0.92, 1.05)1.01 (0.95, 1.08)0.65
  Model 310.96 (0.89, 1.02)0.99 (0.93, 1.07)0.96 (0.89, 1.03)0.98 (0.91, 1.06)0.70
 NHSII
  Median (range)3.33 (0.86, 3.76)4.08 (3.76, 4.38)4.68 (4.38, 4.99)5.35 (4.99, 5.80)6.51 (5.80, 24.7)
  Cases/person-years957/355,8401,012/357,4131,057/358,1911,175/358,5371,259/358,161
  Model 111.05 (0.96, 1.14)1.08 (0.99, 1.18)1.17 (1.08, 1.28)1.22 (1.12, 1.33)<0.001
  Model 210.97 (0.89, 1.07)0.94 (0.86, 1.03)0.99 (0.91, 1.08)0.98 (0.90, 1.07)0.93
  Model 310.95 (0.87, 1.04)0.91 (0.82, 1.00)0.94 (0.85, 1.04)0.93 (0.82, 1.05)0.33
 HPFS
  Median (range)3.45 (0.77, 3.96)4.35 (3.96, 4.71)5.05 (4.71, 5.42)5.83 (5.42, 6.35)7.16 (6.35, 21.0)
  Cases/person-years698/179,551694/181,094741/181,452745/181,349729/180,794
  Model 111.00 (0.90, 1.11)1.08 (0.97, 1.20)1.08 (0.97, 1.20)1.06 (0.95, 1.17)0.15
  Model 210.94 (0.84, 1.05)1.00 (0.90, 1.11)0.98 (0.88, 1.09)0.97 (0.87, 1.08)0.80
  Model 310.87 (0.78, 0.97)0.88 (0.79, 0.99)0.83 (0.74, 0.94)0.77 (0.67, 0.88)<0.001
 Pooled
  Model 210.97 (0.92, 1.01)0.99 (0.94, 1.04)0.98 (0.94, 1.03)0.99 (0.95, 1.04)0.87
  Model 310.94 (0.89, 0.98)0.95 (0.90, 1.00)0.93 (0.88, 0.98)0.92 (0.87, 0.98)0.005
  • *HRs and 95% CIs were calculated through the use of a Cox proportional hazards model. Model 1 was adjusted for age. Model 2 was adjusted for the model 1 variable as well as ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, Asian, or other ethnicity), smoking status (never, former, current [1–14, 15–24, or ≥25 cigarettes/day], or missing), alcohol intake ( 0.0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–14.9, or >15.0 g/day in women and 0.0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–29.9, or >30.0 g/day in men, or missing), family history of diabetes (yes/no), menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use (premenopause, postmenopause [never, former, or current hormone use], or missing; for women only), physical activity (<3.0, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, or ≥27.0 MET h/week or missing), multivitamin use (yes/no), baseline hypertension, baseline hypercholesterolemia, updated BMI (<23.0, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, or >35.0 kg/m2 or missing), total energy intake, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Model 3 was adjusted for the model 1 and 2 variables as well as total fats, trans fats, MUFAs, and other PUFAs.

  • †Study estimates from three cohorts were pooled by using a fixed effects model.