Table 1

Age-standardized participant characteristics at baseline according to quintiles of total n-6 PUFA intake

NHS, 1980NHSII, 1991HPFS, 1986
Q1 (n = 16,729)Q3 (n = 16,730)Q5 (n = 16,729)Q1 (n = 17,722)Q3 (n = 17,724)Q5 (n = 17,722)Q1 (n = 8,354)Q3 (n = 8,355)Q5 (n = 8,354)
n-6 PUFAs, % energy2.55 ± 0.424.17 ± 0.206.70 ± 1.253.31 ± 0.424.76 ± 0.186.91 ± 1.133.42 ± 0.495.14 ± 0.207.65 ± 1.34
Age, years47.6 ± 7.145.8 ± 7.245.0 ± 7.135.7 ± 4.736.1 ± 4.636.6 ± 4.654.6 ± 9.752.7 ± 9.552.6 ± 9.2
Caucasian race979798949697949596
Alcohol intake, g/day9.4 ± 14.15.9 ± 9.54.7 ± 7.93.7 ± 7.93.1 ± 5.72.7 ± 5.015.3 ± 20.111.1 ± 14.28.4 ± 11.7
Current smoking32272813121211109
Physical activity, MET h/week15.9 ± 23.614.0 ± 18.412.6 ± 18.525.0 ± 32.020.5 ± 26.318.2 ± 24.023.7 ± 32.021.1 ± 29.319.5 ± 26.6
BMI, kg/m224.1 ± 4.224.4 ± 4.324.3 ± 4.624.0 ± 4.924.5 ± 5.224.9 ± 5.624.8 ± 4.825.0 ± 4.924.9 ± 4.8
Family history of diabetes242525161616181918
Multivitamin use363432484440434241
Any use of hormone after menopause151515333
Current use of oral contraceptives111011
Hypertension171514666201918
Hypercholesterolemia555141514101011
Total energy, kcal1,535 ± 4991,590 ± 4891,559 ± 5141,758 ± 5401,802 ± 5551,779 ± 5491,955 ± 6192,011 ± 6142,032 ± 643
Total fats, % energy34.3 ± 8.938.7 ± 7.043.2 ± 6.725.4 ± 5.230.4 ± 4.435.2 ± 4.825.3 ± 6.330.6 ± 4.735.6 ± 5.1
PUFAs, % energy3.06 ± 0.464.72 ± 0.237.31 ± 1.273.80 ± 0.475.34 ± 0.237.68 ± 1.264.34 ± 1.015.77 ± 0.747.94 ± 1.44
n-3 PUFAs, % energy0.52 ± 0.110.56 ± 0.090.61 ± 0.130.48 ± 0.150.58 ± 0.130.77 ± 0.220.52 ± 0.190.63 ± 0.160.79 ± 0.25
LA, % energy2.46 ± 0.424.08 ± 0.206.61 ± 1.253.24 ± 0.424.68 ± 0.186.83 ± 1.133.35 ± 0.495.05 ± 0.217.57 ± 1.34
AA, mg/day136 ± 60154 ± 64153 ± 70148 ± 780163 ± 78162 ± 81156 ± 74177 ± 76178 ± 83
Trans fats, % energy1.62 ± 0.472.22 ± 0.542.87 ± 0.851.31 ± 0.501.67 ± 0.571.89 ± 0.651.02 ± 0.451.31 ± 0.481.42 ± 0.54
SFAs, % energy15.4 ± 4.315.7 ± 3.415.5 ± 3.210.3 ± 2.711.3 ± 2.311.9 ± 2.210.2 ± 3.411.2 ± 2.611.5 ± 2.4
Cis-MUFAs, % energy14.2 ± 4.316.1 ± 3.517.5 ± 3.310.0 ± 2.312.1 ± 2.013.7 ± 2.210.1 ± 2.712.3 ± 2.114.3 ± 2.5
Protein, % energy19.9 ± 4.519.2 ± 3.718.0 ± 3.519.5 ± 4.019.5 ± 3.318.7 ± 3.318.5 ± 3.718.6 ± 3.318.1 ± 3.2
Carbohydrates, % energy39.8 ± 10.838.8 ± 8.738.3 ± 8.554.1 ± 8.349.6 ± 6.746.2 ± 6.650.3 ± 10.246.6 ± 7.543.9 ± 7.5
Fruits and vegetables, servings/day4.63 ± 2.444.03 ± 1.903.39 ± 1.694.71 ± 3.164.32 ± 2.554.06 ± 2.415.99 ± 3.295.34 ± 2.634.97 ± 2.44
Cereal fiber, g/day2.11 ± 1.512.50 ± 1.472.74 ± 1.535.53 ± 3.505.66 ± 2.955.62 ± 2.945.97 ± 4.165.80 ± 3.655.68 ± 3.82
  • Data are mean (SD) or percentage and are standardized to the age distribution of the study population.