Table 1

Characteristics of mainland U.S. Puerto Rican adults by type 2 diabetes and glycemic control status

Type 2 diabetes status
Without type 2 diabetes* (n = 711)With type 2 diabetes* (n = 465)Controlled type 2 diabetes (n = 118)Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (n = 339)
Baseline
 Age (years)56.0 ± 7.758.9 ± 7.2#58.2 ± 6.859.1 ± 7.3
 Sex (% female)73.672.569.573.5
 Education ≤8th grade44.652.5#48.353.7
 Married/with partner34.631.031.431.1
 Under poverty line57.160.554.462.0
 Food insecure12.115.717.815.0
 Current smoker25.720.225.418.6
 Hypertension58.485.3#76.388.2
 Use of diabetes medication032.7#6.825.4
 Season of interview
  Winter18.618.120.317.4
  Spring24.321.126.319.5
  Summer30.435.328.837.2
  Fall26.725.624.626.0
 Physical activity score31.8 ± 4.830.9 ± 4.3#31.1 ± 4.730.8 ± 4.1
 Psychological acculturation score18.4 ± 6.618.0 ± 6.917.8 ± 7.318.1 ± 6.8
 Depressive symptomatology score20.0 ± 13.320.0 ± 12.820.6 ± 13.119.8 ± 12.6
 BMI (kg/m2)31.2 ± 6.333.7 ± 6.9#33.4 ± 7.733.8 ± 6.7
 Homocysteine8.9 ± 4.79.2 ± 4.19.4 ± 5.39.1 ± 3.6
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)5.6 ± 7.27.2 ± 10.0#5.2 ± 5.87.9 ± 11.1
 Glucose (mg/dL)97.0 ± 10.9154.6 ± 63.8#124.7 ± 46.5165.1 ± 65.8
 Hemoglobin A1c (%)6.1 ± 0.78.3 ± 1.9#6.4 ± 0.49.0 ± 1.8
 MeDS§4.4 ± 1.74.4 ± 1.64.2 ± 1.54.5 ± 1.7
 HEI-2005§71.3 ± 9.773.2 ± 8.8#71.6 ± 8.573.9 ± 8.7
 AHEI-2010§53.8 ± 9.154.4 ± 8.553.8 ± 7.954.6 ± 8.7
 DASH§23.9 ± 4.124.2 ± 3.823.7 ± 3.824.4 ± 3.9
2-Year cognitive factors
 Global cognitive function0.16 ± 0.54−0.06 ± 0.51#−0.004 ± 0.44−0.08 ± 0.52
 Executive function0.19 ± 1.0−0.21 ± 0.94#0.04 ± 0.89−0.29 ± 0.94
 Memory function0.31 ± 0.880.03 ± 0.92#−0.07 ± 0.920.06 ± 0.91
 MMSE23.6 ± 3.322.8 ± 3.4#22.7 ± 3.222.8 ± 3.4
 Word list learning39.0 ± 11.635.6 ± 10.6#35.5 ± 9.735.7 ± 10.9
 Word recognition30.9 ± 5.130.0 ± 5.9#30.1 ± 5.630.0 ± 6.1
 Stroop24.7 ± 11.220.8 ± 9.3#20.8 ± 9.620.9 ± 9.1
 Letter fluency26.3 ± 12.022.6 ± 10.2#24.1 ± 10.022.2 ± 10.2
 Digit span (forward)7.2 ± 1.97.0 ± 1.8#7.3 ± 1.96.9 ± 1.8
 Digit span (backward)3.4 ± 1.53.0 ± 1.5#3.2 ± 1.53.0 ± 1.4
 Clock drawing2.3 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.1#2.1 ± 1.11.9 ± 1.1
 Figure copying10.6 ± 8.08.0 ± 7.6#8.6 ± 7.77.8 ± 7.6
  • Data are mean ± SD or percent. *Type 2 diabetes was defined as having fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or self-reported use of diabetes medication (including insulin).

  • †Glycemic control was defined as uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c ≥7% [53 mmol/mol]) vs. controlled (hemoglobin A1c <7% [53 mmol/mol]).

  • ‡Psychological acculturation was assessed with a questionnaire on psychological attachment to U.S. or Puerto Rican culture; scores ranged from 0 to 50. Physical activity was estimated as a physical activity score, based on a modified Paffenbarger questionnaire of the Harvard Alumni Activity Survey. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the CES-D Scale; scores ranged from 0 to 60.

  • §The MeDS was assessed based on adherence to nine foods or nutrients using sex-specific population-based median cutoffs; score ranges 0–9. The HEI-2005 was assessed based on dietary guideline recommendations for 12 foods or nutrients; score ranges 0–100. The AHEI-2010 was defined based on 11 food groups or nutrients components for chronic disease prevention; score ranges 0–110. DASH was defined based on eight food groups or nutrient components for hypertension prevention; score ranges 8–40. For all indices, a higher score is indicative of better diet quality.

  • ‖Global cognitive function score was calculated by averaging the z scores for each of the 10 cognitive scores. Cognitive function factors were derived through principal components analysis that identified “executive” and “memory” functions.

  • #Significantly different from individuals without type 2 diabetes at P < 0.05 using Student t test or ANOVA for continuous variables or χ2 for categorical variables.

  • ¶Significantly different from individuals with controlled type 2 diabetes at P < 0.05 using Student t test or ANOVA for continuous variables.