Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the studied patients

GOP (n = 15)Saline (n = 11)P valueaRYGB (n = 21)P valuebVLCD (n = 22)P valuec
Age (years)55.9 (8.5)53.5 (8.5)0.5048.2 (13.2)0.0647.0 (10.2)0.01
Sex, n1.000.020.51
 Female651712
 Male96410
Weight (kg)112.6 (26.7)119.2 (25.1)0.53117.8 (25.3)0.56109.0 (20.5)0.65
BMI (kg/m2)38.4 (6.9)39.2 (5.4)0.7443.2 (6.2)0.0339.1 (4.3)0.70
Diagnosis0.611.000.26
 T2DM, n (%)13 (87)8 (73)18 (86)15 (68)
 Prediabetic, n (%)d2 (13)3 (27)3 (14)7 (32)
Treatment1.000.310.51
 Diet only, n (%)8 (53)6 (55)7 (33)9 (41)
 Metformin only, n (%)7 (47)5 (45)13 (62)13 (59)
 DPP-4 inhibitor only, n (%)001 (5)0 (0)
Fructosamine (µmol/L)304.6 (66.5)278.1 (42.3)0.26250.3 (35.9)0.003252.4 (37.2)0.004
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)9.9 (4.7)7.7 (1.5)0.158.4 (2.0)0.197.9 (2.7)0.11
Fasting insulin (mIU/L)16.3 (10.9)14.4 (7.3)0.6319.7 (6.7)0.2518.0 (11.6)0.66
iHOMA2%S49.9 (21.3)57.1 (21.7)0.4140.2 (17.0)0.1447.8 (18.3)0.74
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.8 (0.7)5.1 (1.3)0.494.3 (1.1)0.095.0 (1.1)0.65
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.9 (0.7)3.1 (1.2)0.632.5 (0.9)0.143.1 (0.9)0.48
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.1 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)0.121.1 (0.2)0.561.0 (0.2)0.21
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.7 (0.9)1.5 (0.4)0.441.5 (0.5)0.502.1 (2.3)0.57
  • Data are displayed as mean (SD), except where indicated. DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; iHOMA2%S, interactive 24-variable homeostasis model assessment percentage insulin sensitivity.

  • aGOP vs. Saline. bGOP vs. RYGB. cGOP vs. VLCD (unpaired two-tailed t test for continuous data or Fisher two-tailed exact probability test for categorical data). dIncludes impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, or HbA1c of 6.0–6.4% (42–48 mmol/mol).