Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 151,489 study participants without treated diabetes, according to plasma glucose and HbA1c levels

FPG, mg/dL2h-PG, mg/dLHbA1c, %
<100100–125≥126P value<140140–199≥200P value<5.7% (39 mmol/mol)5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol)≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol)P value
Participants84,260 (55.6)55,365 (36.6)11,864 (7.8)<0.00196,394 (63.6)37,784 (25.0)17,311 (11.4)<0.00158,996 (39.0)76,082 (50.2)16,411 (10.8)<0.001
Age, years55.6 ± 9.257.7 ± 8.958.7 ± 8.8<0.00155.4 ± 8.958.3 ± 9.159.60 ± 8.9<0.00154.3 ± 9.157.8 ± 8.759.6 ± 8.6<0.001
Male sex26,003 (30.9)20,162 (36.4)5,187 (43.7)<0.00132,243 (33.5)12,261 (32.5)6,848 (39.6)<0.00120,911 (35.4)24,517 (32.2)5,924 (36.1)<0.001
BMI, kg/m224.2 ± 3.525.1 ± 3.626.0 ± 3.6<0.00124.22 ± 3.525.18 ± 3.625.82 ± 3.7<0.00124.0 ± 3.424.8 ± 3.626.2 ± 3.6<0.001
High school or higher education 31,904 (37.9)18,721 (33.8)3,954 (33.3)<0.00135,562 (36.9)13,179 (34.9)5,838 (33.7)0.0221,212 (36.0)27,697 (36.4)5,670 (34.6)0.10
Current cigarette smoking12,057 (14.3)7,772 (14.0)2,033 (17.1)<0.00114,672 (15.2)4,574 (12.1)2,616 (15.1)<0.0019,065 (15.4)10,412 (13.7)2,385 (14.5)<0.001
Current alcohol drinking7,349 (8.7)6,364 (11.5)1,604 (13.5)<0.0019,620 (10.0)3,736 (9.9)1,961 (11.3)<0.0016,803 (11.5)7,009 (9.2)1,505 (9.2)<0.001
Moderate and vigorous physical activity11,221 (13.3)7,401 (13.4)1,411 (11.9)0.00512,871 (13.4)5,072 (13.4)2,090 (12.1)<0.0017,199 (12.2)10,712 (14.1)2,122 (12.9)<0.001
Family history of diabetes9,012 (10.7)6,519 (11.8)1,945 (16.4)<0.00110,034 (10.4)4,733 (12.5)2,709 (15.7)<0.0015,602 (9.5)9,102 (12.0)2,772 (16.9)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg130.2 ± 20.4135.7 ± 20.4141.4 ± 20.9<0.001130.7 ± 20.4135.8 ± 20.5140.8 ± 20.8<0.001131.3 ± 20.7133.2 ± 20.7138.9 ± 20.6<0.001
Fasting HDL cholesterol, mg/dL53.1 ± 14.051.4 ± 14.149.1 ± 13.2<0.00153.3 ± 14.250.6 ± 13.649.3 ± 13.7<0.00153.9 ± 14.551.6 ± 13.848.4 ± 12.7<0.001
Fasting LDL cholesterol, mg/dL110.6 ± 33.2113.8 ± 34.5118.3 ± 35.9<0.001110.8 ± 33.3114.2 ± 34.5117.4 ± 35.9<0.001107.5 ± 32.0114.6 ± 34.4119.5 ± 36.2<0.001
Fasting triglycerides, mg/dL107.2 (78.0–153.2)124.0 (87.7–179.8)150.6 (104.5–223.2)<0.001106.3 (77.1–150.6)131.1 (93.0–188.7)149.7 (104.5–217.9)<0.001104.5 (76.2–149.7)119.6 (85.0–171.0)150.6 (105.4–217.5)<0.001
FPG, mg/dL92.0 ± 6.2108.87 ± 6.4160.70 ± 44.9<0.00197.0 ± 11.2104.5 ± 13.7138.1 ± 46.2<0.00196.3 ± 11.5101.5 ± 13.0139.2 ± 46.9<0.001
2-h PG, mg/dL119.6 ± 33.6145.9 ± 45.7260.4 ± 99.2<0.001108.4 ± 19.6162.8 ± 16.2268.2 ± 71.7<0.001119.4 ± 34.4135.9 ± 42.2235.7 ± 97.0<0.001
HbA1c, %5.7 ± 0.45.9 ± 0.57.5 ± 1.8<0.0015.7 ± 0.55.9 ± 0.57.1 ± 1.6<0.0015.3 ± 0.36.0 ± 0.27.5 ± 1.5<0.001
  • Values are number (percent), mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range). To convert the values for cholesterol to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.02586. To convert the values for triglycerides to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.01129. To convert the values for glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.05551.