Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to complication status

DM without microvascular complications (N = 2,199)DM with microvascular complications (N = 601)P value
Age (years)63.0 (11.4)64.3 (10.8)0.012
Women586 (26.6)175 (29.1)0.23
Ethnicity<0.001
 Chinese767 (34.9)180 (30.0)
 Indian673 (30.6)182 (30.3)
 Malaysian415 (18.9)119 (19.8)
 Japanese145 (6.6)73 (12.1)
 Korean103 (4.7)10 (1.7)
 Thai43 (2.0)27 (4.5)
 Filipino12 (0.5)5 (0.8)
 Indigenous SEA34 (1.5)4 (0.7)
 Others6 (0.3)1 (0.2)
NYHA class<0.001
 I289 (14.9)50 (9.0)
 II1,035 (53.4)286 (51.6)
 III523 (27.0)195 (35.2)
 IV93 (4.8)23 (4.2)
Systolic BP (mmHg)122.6 (20.9)127.1 (22.6)<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)72.4 (12.4)71.1 (12.0)0.019
BMI (kg/m2)26.0 (5.1)26.3 (5.7)0.16
Heart rate (bpm)80.1 (16.1)78.1 (13.9)<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)63.6 (27.4)46.7 (25.5)<0.001
LVEF (%)33.8 (14.9)35.9 (15.5)0.002
HFpEF (%)411 (18.7)150 (24.9)0.001
Ischemic etiology1,202 (58.5)372 (64.4)0.011
Duration of HF, years0.02
 <1988 (47.1)229 (40.2)
 1–5621 (29.3)196 (34.4)
 >5–10317 (14.9)97 (17.0)
 ≥10185 (8.7)48 (8.4)
Signs and symptoms
 Shortness of breath on exertion1,531 (69.7)470 (78.2)<0.001
 Angina266 (12.1)56 (9.3)0.058
 Elevated JVP359 (16.3)132 (22.0)0.001
 Peripheral edema636 (28.9)224 (37.3)<0.001
 Pulmonary rales391 (17.8)165 (27.5)<0.001
Medical history
 Obese380 (18.7)115 (20.6)0.329
 CAD1,263 (57.5)383 (63.7)0.006
 CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2)877 (48.7)375 (75.0)<0.001
 Prior stroke166 (7.6)67 (11.1)0.005
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter399 (18.2)104 (17.3)0.63
 Hypertension1,532 (69.7)448 (74.5)0.022
 Type of DM0.214
  Type 160 (2.7)11 (1.8)
  Type 22,139 (97.3)590 (98.2)
 Duration of DM (years), median (IQR)7 (3, 12)11 (6, 20)<0.001
 Peripheral arterial disease73 (3.3)63 (10.5)<0.001
Medication and device use
 ACEi or ARB1,560 (73.2)392 (66.4)0.001
 β-Blockers1,616 (75.8)457 (77.5)0.41
 MRA1,078 (50.6)206 (34.9)<0.001
 Any diuretics1,771 (83.1)489 (82.9)0.9
 Any oral antidiabetes medication1,291 (60.6)320 (54.6)0.008
 Insulin335 (15.7)139 (23.7)<0.001
 Device use0.372
  None1,932 (88.0)539 (89.7)
  ICD/CRT-D177 (8.0)45 (7.5)
  Pacer/pacemaker87 (4.0)17 (2.8)
Laboratory, median (IQR)
 Potassium (mmol/L)4.2 (3.8, 4.6)4.3 (3.9, 4.6)0.008
 Sodium (mmol/L)138.0 (136.0, 140.0)138.0 (136.0, 141.0)0.88
 Creatinine (mg/dL)1.1 (0.9, 1.5)1.5 (1.2, 2.2)<0.001
  • Data are n (%) or median (interquartile range [IQR]). BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CRT-D, cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator; HR, heart rate; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; JVP, jugular venous pressure; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; SEA, Southeast Asia.