Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the study population at baseline

VariablesTotal (N = 605)Time-weighted BP (mmHg)Incident CAD
<120/80 (n = 387)≥120/80 (n = 218)No (n = 386)Yes (n = 219)
Age, years27.2 (7.7)25.7 (7.5)29.8 (7.4)**24.8 (7.2)31.3 (6.8)**
Age at diabetes onset, years8.2 (4.1)8.0 (4.1)8.5 (4.0)8.1 (4.2)8.3 (3.8)
Diabetes duration, year19.0 (7.4)17.7 (7.1)21.3 (7.4)**16.7 (6.6)23.0 (7.1)**
Female sex, % (n)49.8 (301)57.1 (221)36.7 (80)**51.0 (197)47.5 (104)
SBP, mmHg112.9 (14.7)106.3 (8.7)124.6 (16.1)**109.9 (12.3)118.1 (17.1)**
DBP, mmHg72.5 (10.8)68.1 (7.9)80.2 (11.1)**70.8 (9.8)75.5 (12.0)**
PP, mmHg40.4 (10.3)38.1 (8.1)44. 4 (12.4)**39.1 (9.6)42.7 (10.7)**
MAP, mmHg85.9 (11.3)80.9 (7.2)95.0 (11.6)**83.8 (9.8)89.7 (13.0)**
Antihypertensive medication use, % (n)12.9 (78)5.7 (21)26.6 (57)**7.6 (28)23.0 (50)**
Hypertension, % (n)14.4 (87)3.6 (14)33.5 (73)**7.8 (30)26.0 (57)**
Pulse rate, bpm78 (10)76.9 (9.1)80.5 (10.6)**77.4 (9.8)79.6 (9.7)*
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)8.8 (73)8.7 (72)8.8 (73)8.8 (73)8.7 (72)
Ever smoker, % (n)37.2 (225)36.2 (140)39.0 (85)30.3 (117)49.3 (108)**
BMI, kg/m223.5 (3.2)23.2 (3.2)24.1 (3.2)**23.2 (3.2)24.0 (3.2)**
High WHR, % (n)4.8 (29)5.0 (19)4.6 (10)5.2 (20)4.2 (9)
Urinary AER, μg/min14 (7, 102)11 (6, 25)10 (12, 985)**11 (7, 42)39 (9, 470)**
Raised albuminuria, % (n)44.4 (269)29.7 (115)70.6 (154)**36.5 (141)58.5 (128)**
Total cholesterol, mg/dL189.6 (41.0)182.7 (36.0)201.4 (46.2)**182.5 (38.9)202.2 (41.9)**
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL114.7 (33.8)107.9 (28.2)126.4 (39.1)108.0 (30.2)126.7 (36.6)
Non–HDL cholesterol, mg/dL135.6 (41.0)128.0 (36.7)149.6 (46.4)**127.6 (38.8)149.9 (42.9)**
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL
 Men49.5 (9.8)50.1 (9.9)48.7 (9.7)50.8 (10.0)47.3 (9.0)**
 Women58.4 (12.9)58.4 (12.6)58.6 (13.7)58.9 (13.0)57.5 (12.5)
Triglycerides, mg/dL82 (60, 121)77 (57, 106)92 (66, 141)**76 (57, 108)92 (70, 140)**
  • Data presented as percentage (number) are categorical variables; data are otherwise presented as the mean (SD) or median (first quantile, third quantile) and are continuous variables. PP, pulse pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.

  • *P < 0.05.

  • **P < 0.01 between comparisons of time-weighted BP <120/80 vs. ≥120/80 mmHg, and no CAD vs. CAD.

  • †High WHR was defined as >0.9 in men or >0.85 in women.

  • ‡Raised albuminuria was defined as a urinary AER >20 μg/min (30 mg/24 h) in at least two of three validated and timed biennial urine collections.