Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics, microvascular disease prevalence, and plasma PFAS concentration among 957 participants, a subset of participants enrolled in the DPP trial and DPPOS

CharacteristicsOverall (N = 957)Lifestyle (n = 481) Placebo (n = 476)
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Sex
 Male332 (34.7)165 (34.3)167 (35.1)
 Female625 (65.3)316 (65.7)309 (64.9)
Race/ethnicity
 Caucasian552 (57.7)274 (57)278 (58.4)
 African American184 (19.2)94 (19.5)90 (18.9)
 Hispanic of any race179 (18.7)89 (18.5)90 (18.9)
 All other42 (4.4)24 (5)18 (3.8)
Age, years
 <40112 (11.7)66 (13.7)46 (9.7)
 40–44107 (11.2)58 (12.1)49 (10.3)
 45–49213 (22.3)93 (19.3)120 (25.2)
 50–54167 (17.5)75 (15.6)92 (19.3)
 55–59137 (14.3)70 (14.6)67 (14.1)
 60–64107 (11.2)57 (11.9)50 (10.5)
 ≥65114 (11.9)62 (12.9)52 (10.9)
BMI categories, kg/m2
 <2674 (7.7)37 (7.7)37 (7.8)
 26 to <28114 (11.9)55 (11.4)59 (12.4)
 28 to <30128 (13.4)72 (15.0)56 (11.8)
 30 to <32117 (12.2)55 (11.4)62 (13.0)
 32 to <34122 (12.7)56 (11.6)66 (13.9)
 34 to <36117 (12.2)65 (13.5)52 (10.9)
 36 to <3879 (8.3)45 (9.4)34 (7.1)
 38 to <4055 (5.7)25 (5.2)30 (6.3)
 40 to <4253 (5.5)23 (4.8)30 (6.3)
 ≥4298 (10.2)48 (10.0)50 (10.5)
Education
 <High school45 (4.7)19 (4)26 (5.5)
 High school/GED200 (20.9)100 (20.8)100 (21)
 College469 (49.0)238 (49.5)231 (48.5)
 Graduate school243 (25.4)124 (25.8)119 (25)
Smoking history
 Nonsmoker544 (56.8)279 (58)265 (55.7)
 Former smoker356 (37.2)183 (38)173 (36.3)
 Current smoker57 (6.0)19 (4)38 (8)
Marital status
 Married/cohabitating647 (67.6)321 (66.7)326 (68.5)
 Single114 (11.9)61 (12.7)53 (11.1)
 Divorced/separated152 (15.9)76 (15.8)76 (16)
 Widowed44 (4.6)23 (4.8)21 (4.4)
Annual household income
 <$20,000121 (12.6)55 (11.4)66 (13.9)
 $20,000 to <$35,000167 (17.5)90 (18.7)77 (16.2)
 $35,000 to <$50,000194 (20.3)103 (21.4)91 (19.1)
 $50,000 to <$75,000184 (19.2)95 (19.8)89 (18.7)
 >$75,000214 (22.4)95 (19.8)119 (25)
 Refused to answer77 (8.0)43 (8.9)34 (7.1)
Mother has diabetes
 Yes341 (35.6)176 (36.6)165 (34.7)
 No580 (60.6)290 (60.3)290 (60.9)
 Don’t know35 (3.7)14 (2.9)21 (4.4)
 Missing1 (0.1)1 (0.2)0
Father has diabetes
 Yes320 (33.4)172 (35.8)148 (31.1)
 No570 (59.6)281 (58.4)289 (60.7)
 Don’t know66 (6.9)27 (5.6)39 (8.2)
 Missing1 (0.1)1 (0.2)0
n/N (%)n/N (%)n/N (%)
Microvascular disease prevalence
 Any microvascular disease252/877 (28.7)111/441 (32.6)141/436 (32.3)
 Nephropathy110/871 (12.6)52/437 (11.9)58/434 (13.4)
 Retinopathy98/801 (12.2)43/395 (10.9)55/406 (13.5)
 Neuropathy88/713 (12.3)34/352 (9.7)54/361 (15.0)
<LOD, n (%)GM (IQR)GM (IQR)GM (IQR)
Baseline PFAS concentration (ng/mL)
 Sum PFAS038.43 (28.6)39.59 (30.10)37.30 (27.40)
 PFOS026.38 (22.8)27.17 (23.50)25.60 (20.90)
  n-PFOS018.42 (16.90)19.13 (17.10)17.74 (15.75)
  Sm-PFOS07.32 (6.50)7.43 (6.40)7.21 (6.60)
  Sm2-PFOS564 (58.9)0.13 (0.23)0.13 (0.23)0.14 (0.23)
 PFOA04.82 (3.20)4.90 (3.12)4.74 (3.12)
  n-PFOA04.29 (2.90)4.37 (2.80)4.21 (2.80)
  Sb-PFOA159 (16.6)0.44 (0.50)0.44 (0.60)0.44 (0.50)
 PFHxS1 (0.1)2.41 (2.40)2.51 (2.70)2.30 (2.0)
 EtFOSAA32 (3.3)1.13 (1.50)1.14 (1.50)1.11 (1.40)
 MeFOSAA29 (2.6)0.94 (1.10)0.95 (1.20)0.93 (1.20)
 PFNA65 (6.8)0.53 (0.40)0.54 (0.40)0.52 (0.40)
  • LOD was 0.1 ng/mL for all analytes. PFOS = n-PFOS + Sm-PFOS + Sm2-PFOS; PFOA = n-PFOA + Sb-PFOA. GM, geometric mean; IQR, interquartile range; n-PFOA, linear PFOA, n-PFOS, linear PFOS; Sm-PFOS, perfluoromethylheptane sulfonic acids.