Table 2

Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for diabetes incidence during follow-up relative to baseline plasma PFAS concentration overall and stratified by baseline treatmenta

Overall N = 956 (507 cases)Placebo n = 476 (272 cases)Lifestyle n = 480 (235 cases)Treatment∗PFAS interaction P
Baseline log2-scale PFAS concentrationHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)Pinteraction
Sum PFAS0.97 (0.86, 1.08)0.94 (0.80, 1.10)1.00 (0.85, 1.19)0.49
PFOS0.94 (0.85, 1.04)0.92 (0.80, 1.07)0.96 (0.82, 1.12)0.58
 n-PFOS0.96 (0.87, 1.05)0.93 (0.82, 1.07)0.98 (0.84, 1.14)0.49
 Sm-PFOS0.93 (0.84, 1.02)0.93 (0.81, 1.07)0.92 (0.80, 1.06)0.79
 Sm2-PFOS0.98 (0.91, 1.06)1.03 (0.93, 1.14)0.93 (0.82, 1.04)0.19
PFOA1.05 (0.94, 1.18)1.08 (0.91, 1.29)1.03 (0.87, 1.22)0.77
 n-PFOA1.03 (0.91, 1.16)1.04 (0.87, 1.24)1.03 (0.86, 1.22)0.99
 Sb-PFOA1.08 (1.01, 1.15)1.14 (1.04, 1.25)1.01 (0.92, 1.11)0.11
PFHxS0.97 (0.89, 1.05)0.90 (0.79, 1.02)1.05 (0.93, 1.19)0.08
EtFOSAA1.03 (0.96, 1.09)0.99 (0.90, 1.09)1.05 (0.95, 1.15)0.38
MeFOSAA1.00 (0.92, 1.08)0.97 (0.87, 1.09)1.03 (0.92, 1.16)0.24
PFNA1.01 (0.93, 1.10)1.00 (0.89, 1.12)1.02 (0.90, 1.15)0.96
  • PFOS = n-PFOS + Sm-PFOS + Sm2-PFOS. PFOA = n-PFOA + Sb-PFOA. n-PFOA, linear PFOA; n-PFOS, linear PFOS; Sm-PFOS, perfluoromethylheptane sulfonic acids.

  • aAdjusted for participant sex, race/ethnicity, and baseline age, marital status, education, income, smoking history, BMI, maternal diabetes, paternal diabetes, and treatment assignment if not stratified.

  • Statistically significant results appear in boldface type.